Sanskrit has Indo European origin. English, German, Latvian (Latgalian), Old Prussian too have an Indo European origin. Hence, they have several words in common. Over Centuries, pronunciation and spellings changed. When foreign words entered into English, some alien words took precedence over Indo European words because they had royal patronage.
The knowledge of common vocabulary between Sanskrit and English can help us to understand Sanskrit literature better. Here is a list of such words. The list is not exhaustive. I shall add more, as soon as I am able to collect them. For some of the words, there may be only a remote relationship, still linking them will help to remember the meanings.
Migrations seem to have taken place from lATvia/Lithuania to India and vice versa. It may be like alternative current, which flows in a circuit.
Comments for this particular post, has thousands of Latvian words contributed by Shri lATvian. My immense thanks to him. Please study those words also..
Aham: I; (Latgalian:asmu).
Akshi (n) = eye (Old Prussian: Akksi).
Apaha (N) = Water. (Romanian: Apa.)
AsmAkam: We; (Latgalian:asmu);
Asht`a: eight (Latgalian:okto);
As`ru (N) = Tears (Latvian: Asarot, Lithuanian: Asaroti.)
As`vini (n) = As`vieniai = horses pulling the chariot of the Sun God. (Lithuanian)
Bandham (n) = 1. bond 2. bundle (Danish: bundet; Dutch: bundel; Norwegian: bunt; Swedish: bunt;
Note: Normally, Latvian and Lithuanian are nearer to Sanskrit. Here are the exceptions: Lat: sainis, rysulys.
BhrAta = brother;
CCatvari (pronunciation:chatvari without aspirant):four (Latgalian:quetwores);
DaSa: ten, deca, deci (Latg:dekm);
Dina: day (Latgalian: dina);
Duhita = daughter. (Lithuanian: dukters)
dve, dvi: two (Latgalian:duwo);
Gramdha, grandha = book. Latvian :Gramata
iti: this (Latgalian: ite;)
Jalam (N) = Water. (Czech: Zalevat; Slovenian: Zaliti.
janma dina: birth day (Lithuanian: jimimo diena);
Javvani (n, fem.)= damsel (Latvian: Jaunava )
jiva, jIvanti:live (Lithuanian:gyventi);
bhu, bhava, bhavati: exist(s) (Lithuanian: buti, buvoti);
Kah, Kas: what (Latgalian: Kas);
Karta: Creator, Doer. There is a Latvian Pagan God called "Karta", whose functions
are similar to Hindu God Karta (or Srusht`i Karta i.e. Brahma).
KeKendram: Centre. (Swedish: Karna; Dutch:kern; Danish: kerne.
Lakshmi: Goddess of Wealth. (Latin Goddess Laime has attributes similar to Lakshmi. Hindus worship Lakshmi with eight attributes (adjective called Asht`a Lakshmi) such as money, children, corn, education etc. Latvin Laime has four attributes, as I understand.
Mata:mother, mater, maternal; (Latvian equivalent "mate". Laime mate = Lakshmi Mata. The word Mata is used for Goddesses also, because they are like mothers).
mrut, mrit, mriti:mortal;(Lithuanian:mriti);
Na=no; (Latgalian: na)
nava:nine (as in November, nineth month originally;)(Latgalian:newn);
pakshi (n) : bird (Latvian: puce)
panca (pancha):five (Latgalian: penkwe).
PatAl`a (n) = underworld (Lithuanian: Patalu, God of underworld).
Payaha (N) = 1. Water. 2. Milk. (Lithuanian: pienas, Latvian: Piens in the
meaning of milk.)
pita:pater, paternal, father;
plava:flow (Latvian: plust;
Pralapam (n)= babble (Latvian: plapat Lithuanian: plepati)
PrIt:: to like, be happy, prefer. (Lithuanian: pritati)
s`akha (s`Akha): branch (Lithuanian:s`aka, verb: s`akotas)
s`aka (s`Aka): vegetable (Lithuanian:s`aka)
Sammata: Agree. (Icelandic: sammala, Swedish: stamma; Lithuanian: pritati)
sapta, saptam:septa; (Latgalian:septm);
Sharkara (n) : Sugar; (Latvian: cukur; Lithuanian: cukrus; Finnish: sokeri; Hungarian: cukor; Norwegian:
shasht`a: sexta;(Latgalian:sveks, Latvian: Sashi)
Sthita: Sit. (Icelandic: sitja; Norwegian: sitta, Swedish: sitta)
Sukker; Danish: Sukker; Czech: cukr; Swedish: socker.).
Added with the help of Shri Latvian: Sunaka, Sunakam. (Sanskrit) = dog. : suņuks, suņuka (Latvian) = a puppy, dog. SunI (Sanskrit). = female dog. bitch. : suns, sunis (Latvian). = dog, suņi dogs. Supam or Supa (pr: Suupa)(n) = Soup, broth, boiled lentils particularly Redgram or Greengram splits. (Latvian: zupa; Lithuvanian: sriuba)
tamasa (Sanskrit) =darkness. : tumsa, tamsa. (Latvian).=darkness.
This word is the contribution of Mr/Ms. Latvian, whose comment appears below. tAra:star;
tava:your (Lithuanian: tava);
tee: they;(Latgalian: tevi)
trini, traya: three;tri; (Latgalian: treyes);
Udakam (U is pronounced as in You) = water. (Lithuanian: Vanduo; Latvian Odens; Czech: Voda.)
Vayu (N) (pronunc: VAyu) = Wind God. (Vejas - Lithuanian).
yavvana:youth (Lithuanian: jaunimas)
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