Thursday, January 25, 2007


Sanskrit has Indo European origin. English, German, Latvian (Latgalian), Old Prussian too have an Indo European origin. Hence, they have several words in common. Over Centuries, pronunciation and spellings changed. When foreign words entered into English, some alien words took precedence over Indo European words because they had royal patronage.

The knowledge of common vocabulary between Sanskrit and English can help us to understand Sanskrit literature better. Here is a list of such words. The list is not exhaustive. I shall add more, as soon as I am able to collect them. For some of the words, there may be only a remote relationship, still linking them will help to remember the meanings.

Migrations seem to have taken place from lATvia/Lithuania to India and vice versa. It may be like alternative current, which flows in a circuit.

Comments for this particular post, has thousands of Latvian words contributed by Shri lATvian. My immense thanks to him. Please study those words also.



Aham: I; (Latgalian:asmu).
Akshi (n) = eye (Old Prussian: Akksi).


Apaha (N) = Water. (Romanian: Apa.)
AsmAkam: We; (Latgalian:asmu);


Asht`a: eight (Latgalian:okto);
As`ru (N) = Tears (Latvian: Asarot, Lithuanian: Asaroti.)


As`vini (n) = As`vieniai = horses pulling the chariot of the Sun God. (Lithuanian)


Bandham (n) = 1. bond 2. bundle (Danish: bundet; Dutch: bundel; Norwegian: bunt; Swedish: bunt;

Note: Normally, Latvian and Lithuanian are nearer to Sanskrit. Here are the exceptions: Lat: sainis, rysulys.

BhrAta = brother;


Catvari (pronunciation:chatvari without aspirant):four (Latgalian:quetwores);


DaSa: ten, deca, deci (Latg:dekm);
Dina: day (Latgalian: dina);
Duhita = daughter. (Lithuanian: dukters)
dve, dvi: two (Latgalian:duwo);




Gramdha, grandha = book. Latvian :Gramata


itaram: other;
iti: this (Latgalian: ite;)


Jalam (N) = Water. (Czech: Zalevat; Slovenian: Zaliti.

janma:gen, genetic;(Lithuanian:jimimas);
janma dina: birth day (Lithuanian: jimimo diena);


Javvani (n, fem.)= damsel (Latvian: Jaunava )


jiva, jIvanti:live (Lithuanian:gyventi);
bhu, bhava, bhavati: exist(s) (Lithuanian: buti, buvoti);


Kah, Kas: what (Latgalian: Kas);
Karta: Creator, Doer. There is a Latvian Pagan God called "Karta", whose functions
are similar to Hindu God Karta (or Srusht`i Karta i.e. Brahma).


Kendram: Centre. (Swedish: Karna; Dutch:kern; Danish: kerne.


Lakshmi: Goddess of Wealth. (Latin Goddess Laime has attributes similar to Lakshmi. Hindus worship Lakshmi with eight attributes (adjective called Asht`a Lakshmi) such as money, children, corn, education etc. Latvin Laime has four attributes, as I understand.


Mata:mother, mater, maternal; (Latvian equivalent "mate". Laime mate = Lakshmi Mata. The word Mata is used for Goddesses also, because they are like mothers).



mrut, mrit, mriti:mortal;(Lithuanian:mriti);


Na=no; (Latgalian: na)

nava:nine (as in November, nineth month originally;)(Latgalian:newn);

NAsa:nose;nasal;(German: nase)




pakshi (n) : bird (Latvian: puce)
panca (pancha):five (Latgalian: penkwe).
PatAl`a (n) = underworld (Lithuanian: Patalu, God of underworld).
Payaha (N) = 1. Water. 2. Milk. (Lithuanian: pienas, Latvian: Piens in the
meaning of milk.)


pita:pater, paternal, father;


plava:flow (Latvian: plust;


Pralapam (n)= babble (Latvian: plapat Lithuanian: plepati)

PrIt:: to like, be happy, prefer. (Lithuanian: pritati)





s`akha (s`Akha): branch (Lithuanian:s`aka, verb: s`akotas)
s`aka (s`Aka): vegetable (Lithuanian:s`aka)
Sammata: Agree. (Icelandic: sammala, Swedish: stamma; Lithuanian: pritati)
s`atam:cent, centime;

sapta, saptam:septa; (Latgalian:septm);


Sharkara (n) : Sugar; (Latvian: cukur; Lithuanian: cukrus; Finnish: sokeri; Hungarian: cukor; Norwegian:

shasht`a: sexta;(Latgalian:sveks, Latvian: Sashi)


Sthita: Sit. (Icelandic: sitja; Norwegian: sitta, Swedish: sitta)


Sukker; Danish: Sukker; Czech: cukr; Swedish: socker.).


Added with the help of Shri Latvian: Sunaka, Sunakam. (Sanskrit) = dog. : suņuks, suņuka (Latvian) = a puppy, dog. SunI

(Sanskrit). = female dog. bitch. : suns, sunis (Latvian). = dog, suņi dogs. Supam or Supa (pr: Suupa)(n) = Soup, broth, boiled lentils particularly Redgram or Greengram splits. (Latvian: zupa; Lithuvanian: sriuba)


tamasa (Sanskrit) =darkness. : tumsa, tamsa. (Latvian).=darkness.
This word is the contribution of Mr/Ms. Latvian, whose comment appears below. tAra:star;
tava:your (Lithuanian: tava);
tee: they;(Latgalian: tevi)

trini, traya: three;tri; (Latgalian: treyes);


Udakam (U is pronounced as in You) = water. (Lithuanian: Vanduo; Latvian Odens; Czech: Voda.)


Vayu (N) (pronunc: VAyu) = Wind God. (Vejas - Lithuanian).




yavvana:youth (Lithuanian: jaunimas)



LEGAL DISCLAIMER: This blog is written as a search for truth. No illwill or hurt is intended against anybody. No liability/responsibility can be accepted for errors.


paddy said...

THere is no such thing indo -eurpean,
Prussian, big bang, apes to humans.

These are all terms devised by envious western scholors who had no understanding of the sanatan dharma culture. THey were illuded by their superiority complex on account of the empire, colonisation and imperialism. THey considered the native culture weak in a quest to christianise, divide and conquer who oplitical schemes.

No aryan invasian no dravidian tribes.

All myths.

Fact. Eternal vedic culure from which all other cultures have emminated over passage of time. Sanskrit olest and oprigal language which is immotive. From this all other lnguagesd have evolved. English is only descriptive.
Dharma means: the essential nature of a thing which if you take it away is taken away is no longer itself.

Please see Eric Partridge Etiemology Dictionary

paddy said...

If one goes carefully, then one can see that it is wrong to classify Sanskrit as language of IE family.
So how can one say that they have common origin? At the best one can say that these words in Greek or Latin are borrowed from Sanskrit.
Later on these words were borrowed in English.

This is significant if one sees number of similar words in related languages like Hindi and Sanskrit or English and French. Further how does one explain the fact that all European languages share many more words with Hebrew. On other hands number of similar words in Sanskrit and Dravidian languages is also significantly high. This also strengthens the assumption that Sanskrit family developed independently on its own and European languages borrowed from Sanskrit, rather than they originating from the same language.

The script of Sanskrit and other European languages differ significantly whereas, the scripts of European languages are quite similar.

In Sanskrit, one does not find any European word, but it is other way round. Words resembling Sanskrit words can be found in European languages.

The concept of Indo European family is questionable. It is clear that based on few similarities Sanskrit family has been treated as part of IE family. One can say that Sanskrit family evolved on its own and others like European languages borrowed from it.

latvian said...

latvian, latgalian words with mistakes, and there are some dialects with other forms of words. <>

latvian said...

baltic languages and dialects are agglutinative languages. So, new words, wordforms comes from associations, remarkable values, traditions etc. For example, to be (būt, būt(i))goes to The main/essence/gist as (būtība), a thing (with personification) to (būtne).

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian
asht`a (eight) - astoņi(astuonhi).
as`ru (tears) - asaras, asras, (asaru, asru (Acc.)).
Bandham (bond) - bante(a bow), binte (binde (Curonian)) (a roll bandage), bunte (a bond).
dve, dvi (two)- divi, divas.
jiva, jiivanti (live) - dzīva, dzīvoti.
mata (mother) - māte,(mote(muote)(latgalian)).
naasa (nose) - nāss(nostril), nose(Malenian dial.Latv.).
sapta, saptam (seven) - septiņi(septinhi).
Sthita (to sit) - sēst(i), sēdēt.
Shasht`a (six) - seši, sešas (sestā, sestais, sestie, sestās (sixth, sixths)).
taara (star) - stari(rays); zvaigznes un stari (stars and rays).
tat (that) - tā, tātad (that, so(so on)).
tee (they) - tie, tās.
trini, traya (three, tri-..) - trīs, trijas, trejas, treji, trej-...).; trīnis, trīņi (triplets).
Traya Vayu Udakam - Treji vēji Ūdenim (Three winds for water).
Udakam (water) - ūdens, ūden(i)s.
yooga (yoke) - jūgs (pajūgs - cart; pa (by), jūgs (yoke)).

latvian said...

Latvian literar language mostly formed in 19th century and this process ended 1930-ties. Problem is words from dialects, some of them could show more realities, evidences how latvian tribe languages were before and before Cross wars 13th century. So, nowadays there are some people talking in their dialect, mostly known are latgalians, but there are more as Malenians (malēnieši), than Kursenieki(Coronian dialect), and there are words different in etnographic lands.

So, this is an area to study.

ybr said...

Reply to Mr. Latvian: What I wonder most is: the commonality of festivals and Gods/goddesses between Latvia and India. Today`s Latvians may view the Gods/goddesses as pagan Gods. That is because, the North European minds (minds are a sort of hard disks) were overwritten by invading rOman Catholic culture. The pre 14th Century history of North Europe, particularly Norway-sweden-denmark-netherlands-finland-latvia-lithuania-Old prussia needs an in-depth study. Late lOkmAnya bal gangAdhar tilak (predecessor of mahatma gAndhi) wrote that Aryans descended from North polar regions. Lord Vishnu (visn) and Lakshmi (lakme mAte) whom Indians worship with great dedication have also descended from there.

latvian said...

Yes, it is necessary for study in debt. Problem is the lying history, science, full with mistakes noone want`s to remove. About sanskrit-baltic connection - there are some more similarities. In all Eurasia and part Africa there are a lot of Baltic hydronims, toponims, except China. Ancient baltic languages were gramaticaly free in changing vowels and doublevowels, and in writings mostly didn`t write vowels. So river `upe` could be `ape`. Gramatical freedom gives advantages for some baltic tribes to use other consonant whitch sounds similar. For example river `upe` caould be `ube, obe, uba, upp, abe, aba, oba` etc for tribes. Diferencies are visible comparing latvian with lithuanian language.
silts-šiltas(warm), tumsa-tamsa(darkness), ciets-kietas(hard), etc. There are a lot words whitch is not comparable, because too different. There are teory to part baltics in northerners(latvians) and southerners (lithuanians), westerners(prussians). In some aspects prussians seems similar more to lithuanians, in other latvians. It is no just like spanish and portuguese. Baltic languages are agglutinative languages, this gives a dificulty to understand each other except important words.

There are link to see Baltic hydronims, toponims around world(scroll page down).

latvian said...

Hydronims, toponims in a page down.

latvian said...

About question about goddeses. This is difficult to answer. I think today latvian religy practics are far away from lost ancient baltic religy, however they try. Too much is lost by centuries, 350 year leading teutonic order as Livonia confederation. There are no evidence in writings, whitch were on a birch bark or as twines and decayed or destroyed by crussaders. Religy scientists doesn`t have unite viewpoint, for example, goddess personifications, are these goddeses as gods or as an instrument(as personifications) by Almighty God. There are no step ahead yet.

latvian said...

Akshi(eye) - Acs(single), acis(plural), ači (latv.dial. plural.). Vilkatis or vilkacis (werevolf) and Vilkači (werevolfs).
If analized word `Grāmata`, there are main part of word `grām-` then `-at-` and ending `-a`. `-at-` is a suffix, which sometimes isn`t necessary and throwing it away it is possible to get short form of word. This case the main part of word is `grām-` without ending `-a`.
`Karta` - `Kārta` (latv. goddess Kārta, kārta (a layer, dress layer), `Kārtība` (order or Order, common law) with suffix `-īb-`. Then latvians have other words come from word main part `kārt-`:kārtīgs, kārtīgums(neatness, a neatness) (with double suffix `-īg+um-`), kārtot(put in order; suffix `-o-`) and others.
If analise word `ūdens` (water) there are main part `ūd-` then suffix `-en-` and ending `-s`. So main part of word is `ūd-`. Similar sounds a word `Līdaka` (a pike fish). `Līd-` comes from a word `līst`(to sneak) and a fish name is made with added suffix `-ak-`. The one more thing is a coincidence that Līdaka contains `aka`, which means a well in latvian. A pike fish is a sneaky fish which likes deep waters too.

To analize words in baltic languages, it is necessary to understand which part of word is the main part.

Lakshmi - Laime (a goddess Laima, word laime is more tended to felicity as long lasting, not a lucky case. Latvians has other word, which means a lacky case. It is `Veiksme` (Veikhsme), `veik-` is a main part of word, `-sm-` a suffix, ending `-e`. And other similar words: veiksme, veiksmīgs, veikls, veikals, veikties, veicināt(`k` changes to `t`), veik-um-s, iz-veic-īb-a, uz-veikt etc.

Sanskrit - Sens skribelis, Sens skric-el-ēj-um-s (a triple suffix) Senraksts, Sanroksts (Malenian dial.)(in latvian these words means an old writing or an old sign system).
-skr- as main part in latvian words:
skrāpēt, skribināt, skrubināt, skricelēt, skrūvēt. The main part shows a sound `-skr- .
Tumasa - (darkness) Tumsa; Tumšs, tumša(dark), Tums-īb-a, Tums-on-īb-a(obscurantism), Tums-n-ēj-s(partialy dark), sa-tums-t (to darken, `sa-` is a prefix), tumsas valdnieks (lord of darkness), reik (a lord; old prusian), rīks (an instrument; latvian).
Rīks, (an instrument; latvian) , rīk-o-t (to organize), rīc-īb-a (an action, `k` changes to `c`), rīk-oj-ums (an ordinance), rik-tē-t (to monitor; latv.dialect).

latvian said...

Going into sanskrit dictionary
Sanskrit - latvian
Aathma (The real self, one`s divinity, God) - latvian similar sounds `esme` (an inner self as soul, a being as self and a process, feelings).
Bhakhti (devotee God) - Bijāt(i)(to devotee (God)) .
Dhyaana (meditation on God) - Dievināšana (to dote), Diešana (a mirth).
jeeva (individual soul) - dzīve(latvian), dzeive(latgalian dialect) (life, lifetime) ; dzīvs,
dzīva (alive) .
Jeevaathma (Individual Self enshrined in the human body, soul) - Dzīvotne (space for a living) , Dzīvošana (a living) .
Jnaana (Knowledge, wisdom) - Zināšana (Knowledge, wisdom) , zināt (to know), zina((he/she) knows), ziņas (news), ziņnesis (a messenger) , zintnieks (a mage).
Sanaathana (ancient, eternal) - Senatne (ancient period) , Sens (ancient), Sendienas (Ancient days) .
Shuudhra (Laborer) -Skudra (an ant) .
Sva-ruupa (Essential nature) - Savrups, Savrupa (solitary, unconnected), Sava rūpe (Self care) .
Thamas (dullness, ignorance, delusion, inactivity, inertia, sloth, etc.) - Dumas, dumjas(..the same meanings..) .

ybr said...

My sincere thanks to Shri lATvian for his valuable contribution of numerous words. I personally believe (belief only, not much evidence) that Gupta dynasty which ruled India between 301 A.D.and 420 A.D. has lATvian origins. If we can get 3rd 4th Century A.D. history of Latvia-Lithuania-Lathgalia-suDovia-Old Prussia, may be some folklore discredited as pagan history by the Roman invaders from South Europe into Nordisc and Baltic, we can go a long way in identifying the sanatanas (ancestors) of Gupta kings. rAma and his ancestors ikshvAkus/raghus might have been from lATVian/Old Prussian region. The svastik sign (Hitler called himself Aryan and liked svastik very much) may also have the German-lATvian origin. Hindu temple preachers in India do not relish the word Hindu for their religion. They chant the phrase "sanAtana dharma" (ancient religion). Of course, the word Hindu may not be traceable in ancient scriptures of Hinduism. Then the phrase sanAtana dharma is also rare in ancient scriptures. Hence, it appears that the sanAtana dharma may be the sanAtanas of lATvia. Anyway, more research is needed.
I greatly appreciate the work of Shri lATvian.

latvian said...

construction of written words before, words as they sound`s like:

Aathma - esme ( essme)
Bhakti - Bijāt(i) (Bhiyaathi)
Dhyaana - Diešana (Dhieshana), Dāvana (a gift (for religic cases too)) (Dhaavana).
jeeva - dzīva (Dziiva)
Jeevaathma - Dzīvotne (Dziivuothne).
Jnaana - Zināšana (Zinaashana)
Sanaathana - Senatne (Senathne - first `e` pronouned as sound between a and e).
Shuudhra - skudra (Skhudhra)
Sva-ruupa - Savrupa (Savhrupa), Sava rūpe (Sava ruupe) (similar is Paša rūpe (Pasha ruupe).
Thamas - Dumas (Dhumas).

Mr. Ybr, do You have other sanskrit words to share? I don`t.

latvian said...

Hi, paddy.

words from sanskrit glossary which sound`s and mean`s similar or like latvian:

prefix `-ab` is similar latvian prefix `-ap`. `-Ap` means around . For example `apziņa` (appzhinya), similar sounds sanskrit `abjna` or `abjnana` (latv. apzināšana (apzhinaashyana))(identification).

Sanskrit prefix `a-` seem`s similar latvian prefix `at-` which mean`s a direction away from a subject, for example sanskrit word `ajnana`, `jnana` shows knowledges , `a-` a direction away from them, similar is a prefix `bez-` which means without.
agni (fire) - uguns, guns (single); uguņi, gunis (plural).

apara (the lower, inferior) -apakša
(apakhsha)(a bottom), apakšējs (the lower).
arati (divine service performed in the early morning or at dusk) - atrauti, atrautība (disconnectedness(for example from secular life)).
arupa (formless, timeless being) - rūpēm, bezrūpīgs (without cares,careless).
Ashram (hermitage) - Akshrum (an underground space) (prussian)); apakšrūme (an underground space) (latv. Malenian dial.).
bhakti marga [bhukti maarg]: path of devotion - bijāt(i) (to devotee) + marga ( a rod).

latvian said...

dahara vidya [duhuraa vidyaa]: contemplation of the deity in the heart - vidus (a center)(latvian).
dana [daan]: gift; alms; relinquishment - dāvana (a gift).
diksha [dik^sh]: spiritual initiation
- dīkshana, dīka (wither away).
dvaita [dvait]: duality - divatā (two together)(divhataa), divatne (duality).
ganapati [gunuputi]: consciousness
- in latvian it means self-management or to shepherd by self:
gana (to shepherd), pati (self).
Gayatri [gaayutri]: a sacred Vedic mantra - gāja ātri (went quickly)(gaaya aatri).
gita [geet]: song - dziesma (a song), dzied ((he/she)sing`s), dziedāšana (a singing).
guru [same]: a spiritual master - gudrs (smart), gudrais (a smart person).
Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of Lord of the worlds - Visvara (the power over everything)(Viss (all), vara (power)).
jivanmukti [jeevunmukti]: liberation while alive - dzīvot (to live), mukt(i) (to get away, to sidestep).
jnanagni [j^naanaagni]: fire of wisdom - in latvian it could be said `zināšanuguns`, but literally corect is `apziņas liesma`, `liesma`(flame).
jnani [j^naani]: sage; one who has realized the Self - zinātājs, zinātāji (wise man(men) who can share, give advice).
Kailas [kailaas]: a mountain in the Himalayas reputed to be the home of Siva - Kails, kaila, kaili, kailas (naked, stopped), Kailais (one who is naked, stopped).
kama [kaam]: desire; physical love; lust - patīkama (the same meaning).
kumbha [kumbh]: pot used for keeping water - kulba (kulbha) (pot used for throwing butter).
kuvasana [kuvaasun]: bad tendency -
kavēšana (kaveeshana)(retardation).
laghu [lughu]: light; easy -
liegs, liega (light, easy).
lakshana [luk^shun]: sign; definition - lūgšana (prayer, invocation).
linga [ling]: symbol - linga (a sling).
loka [lok]: world; that which is seen - loks (1)a circle, 2) area that which is seen around; aploks (stockyard); laukā (laukaa)(in outside or afield), pasaule (world) - in latvian name `pa-saule` means `by the sun`.
loukika [loukik]: worldly - pasaulīga (worldly); laucīga (peasantly).
neti-neti [same]: "not this, not this"; negating all names and forms in order to arrive at the eternal underlying truth - ne šis, ne tas (not this, not that).
nisarga [ ]: nature - nesargā ((someone or noone) not guarding).
nivritti [nivr^tti]: destruction; cessation of activity - nevarēti (not being able to..).
para [puraa]: higher; supreme; other; in Tantricism, unmanifest sound - pār, pāri (above, over), pārāks (higher), vispārāks (supreme).
para bhakti [puraa bhukti]: supreme devotion - pārāki bijāt(i) (higher then others in devotion).

prajna [praaj^na]: consciousness; awareness; highest wisdom, transcendent wisdom; also employed as a synonym for the universal 'substance' - pārziņa (manage(skills and knowledges, also wisdom)).
prajnana [pruj^naan]: full consciousness - pārzināšana (managment of knowledges).
prajnana ghana [pruj^naan ghun]: Brahman, the Absolute; immutable Knowledge - gana priekšzināšanu (enough knowledges); gana (much; enough).
priya [same]: joy; dear - prieks (joy).

latvian said...

preta [pret]: a hungry, tantalized ghost, led by evil karma into that sad but temporary state of existence - pretīgs(repulsive), pretējs (oposite).
rasa [rus]: bliss - raisa (unfolding), atraisītība (unfoldiness, happy).
rasasvada [rusaasvaad]: taste of bliss in the absence of thoughts - atraisās un vada (unfolding and leading (himself)).
sakama [sukaam]: with desire - sa+tīkama (latvains not talk like this)= satikšana, saticība (a concord (for example husband and wife)).
sakshat [suk^shaat]: here and now - sāksiet (saak`siet) ((You`ll) begin), sāksiet te ((You`ll) begin here).
sakti (shakti) [sh^ukti]: power; energy; force - sokt (to succeed).
sakti pata [sh^ukti paat]: descent of divine power on a person - sokties pašam (to succeed by self; `pats` or `pati` changes to `pašam`, `pašai`).
samasta [sumust]: whole - samesta (thrown; thrown full if thrown in a pot), samaisīta (mixed in one (mass)).

Baltics had important words in our Dainas, which is common for latvians, lithuanians and prusians.

These are:

rit (flowing), ritums (roll; year (full year cycle)), ritenis (wheel) etc. If common with sanskrit, then common will be form `rit`.

vest, ved (to carry, carrying), vedības (marriage), vednis (wizard), common in sanskrit (if common) could be both - vest, ved.

vadīt, vada (to lead, leading), vadītājs (manager), vadonis (leader), vatiekse (leader (a woman) (etruscan lang. extinct), vadīkla (a control mechanism), vads (a wire or squad).

Interesting is well known sanskrit word `Vedas`. I have asociations with two latvian words - Vedas (well occurs (succeed)) or Viedas (smart (in plural)).

latvian said...

sarupa [ ]: with form; having form - sarūpēt (saruupeet) (to donate, to get something for another when is need (only something specific with form and visible)).
sarva [surv]: all - sarāva (saraava) (shoveled, scooped (saraust vērtības ( to shovel values)- it means to get more than others or as the expense on others ).
sarvajna [survuj^na]: omniscient - sarāva zināšanas ((he/she) shoveled knowledges (whole or more than others), but latvians didn`t have doubleword like this, in latvian it is doubleword `viszinis` like wholeknower.
sarvajnatvam [survuj^nutvum]: omniscience - viszinātība (omniscience).
jna - zina, ziņa (knows, news), jnana - zināšana (knowledge):
coincidence is visible `j` in sanskrit is latvian `z` when meanings are the same.
Sarvesvara [survesh^vur]: the supreme Lord - sarāves vara (latvians not talk like this) (literary corect could be ` saraušanas vara (authority of shoveling or seize), but latvians using a word `Vis-valdis` (Supreme Lord or whole-leader).
satya [sutya]: Truth; the real - saka, sacīja (saka, saciiya) (tells, told)(ancient times latvian legends were called `sakas`, `teikas`, `teiksmas`, `pasakas (fairytells)`.
sayujya [saayujya]: union; identity - sajūdza (sayuudza)((he/she)conjugated), sajūgts/savienots (connected/unified).
Skanda [skunduH]: younger son of Siva; leader of the divine hosts - skanda (speaker), skandēt (to chime), skandināt (to resound, to clink, to dim).

latvian said...

sphurana (sphurna) [sphurun]: manifestation; throbbing or breaking; bursting forth; vibration - spurgšana (sphurghshana) (laughing with vibration through nose).
svapna [svupna]: dream; dreaming state - sapnis (dream, daydream), (sapņošana (sapnyuoshana)- a dreaming.
swaraj [svuraaj]: independence - sava +rauja = raujas pats (endeavor by self).
swechcha [svechchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh']: of one's own will - sveša (svesh:a) (alien, unfamiliar).
tapas (tapasya) [tupus (tupusyaa)]: austerity - taupīt (to save), taupīšana, taupība (austerity).
Tat [tut]: That; Brahman - tas (That).
Tat tvam asi [tut tvum usi]: 'That thou are' - Tas tu esi (That thou are), Tāds tu esi (That-like thou are);

Forms of `You` in latvian:
Tu (nom.), tevis(gen.), tev, tevīm (dat.), tevi (acc.), ar tevi (instr.), tevī, iekš tevis, iekš tevīm (loc.). Forms are a bit variable due to vowel changes in latv.dialects.

`Tat twam asi` is more like lithuanian or latgalian dialect - Tats tavams aš, Tats asi tu.

tattva [tuttva]: truth; essence of a thing - tas tā.., tam tā.., tā tam.. (word form which shows to visible truth when showed to it), tas tā ir (It is!), tam tā būt, tā tam būt (It is, it have to!).

turyaga [turyugaa]: beyond words; one of the seven stages of enlightenment - satura jēga (esence of content), satur (contains), tur(keeping), jēga (yeega) (purport).

ybr said...

Dear Shri Latvian: I am immensely grateful to you for your gift of hundreds of words. Now, it will be my duty to work on these words and trace missing links between Latvian-Lithuanian-Sudovian cultures and Indian Culture.

In the meantime, can we get some words from Suomi language of Finland? I hope you may know something about its vocabulary and grammar.

If you will like to ask any questions about Indian languages, please do not hesitate to ask me, here.

latvian said...

Sorry, I don`t know finnish or our neighbour`s estonian language. It is so difficult, it isn`t indoeuropean, but i know finno-ugric languages are one of the oldest languages along with baltic, celtic in the northern Europe. Some words in latvian ar common with finnish, for example, laiva (boat), and some others I don`t mind, whose one of us take from another.

latvian said...

upasaka [upaasuk]: meditator; layman who lives according to certain strict rules - uzpasaka (up saying)(old latvian word with meaning `(he/she)is up-saying prayer`.
upasana [upaasun]: meditation; contemplation - uzpasacīšana (the same meanings; `k` changes to `c` as alternation).
upasana sthana [upaasun sthaan]: seat of meditation - uzpasacīšana sēdēšana / uzpasacīšana sēstšana (the meditation the sitting ).
uttama [ ]: highest grade -
uzteicama (commended).

vac (vak) [vaac]: speech - vārds (a word, speech and name), uzvārds (surname).
vachyartha [vaachyaartha]: literal meaning - vārdjēga, vārdu vērte (same meanings).
vada [vaad]: theory; disputation -
vada (leading), vadīkla(theory, a control mechanism).
vairagya [vairaagya]: dispassion; nonattachment - vairogs (shield), vairījās [vairiiyaas] (shunned).
varistha [vurishtha]: the most excellent - var ((he/she) can), vares (effort), varēt (to can),varens (mighty), varen (very), varis (that one who can do it), varonis (hero).
vasana [vaasun]: habit of the mind; latent tendency, impression or predisposition due to experiences of former lives; subtle desire - vēlēšana, vēlēšanās, vēlme, vēle (same meanings).
vastu [vustu]: substance; reality - viss tur (everything there), visu tur, visu satur (everything keeping), saturs (substance).
vastutah [vustutuH]: in reality - viss tur tā (everything there (is) that); īsteni, patiesi (in reality).
Vasudeva [vaasudev]: Krishna as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord who created the world - Visu deva (everything (he/she/it) gave), Visu dievu (The most mighty of all gods).

latvian said...

videha mukti [videha mukti]: Self-realization after leaving the body - vīdēja mukti [viideeya] (vīdēja (was unclearly visible or sensate)) + (mukti (to get away)),
vi (interjection -`Oh!` or `by force`)(latvian dial., altered form but still in vocabulary).

vijnana [vij^naan]: spiritual knowledge; discriminating the real from the unreal; principle of pure intelligence - viszināšana (the same meaning).
vijnata [vij^naataa]: knower - viszinātājs (all-knower)[viszinaataays].
visranti [vish^raanti]: repose - rimti (to calm, to subside).
visva [visva]: the individual being in the waking state; the all - viss, visa (the all, whole).
visvarupa (v. darsana) [visvuroop dursh^un]: God seen as the universe - viss savā rūpē (the all by cares by self), vissavrupa darīšana (The most solitary doing or bussiness).

vivarta vada [vivurt vaad]: theory that Brahman appears as the world, soul and God, like a rope appears as a snake, without itself undergoing any change - visvērti vada (the most valuably manages).
vritti [vr^tti]: modification of the mind; mental concept; thought-wave - virt(i) (to eddy, to boil, to effervesce), virst dusmas (fizzling angers).
yaga [yaag]: ritualistic sacrifice - jēga, jāga (yeega, yaaga) (meaning, purport), upura jēga (sacrifice`s purport).
yama [ ]: self-control; the first rung in the ladder of eightfold yoga (abstention from lying, killing, theft, lust, covetousness etc.); also, the god of death (Yama) - jēdzams, jēdzama , jēdzīgs, jēdzīga(meaningful, sensible,acceptable, coherent) (jēga `g` changes to jēdzīgs `dz`).
yugapat srishti [yuguput sr^shti]: simultaneous creation - jūdza pats (sa)risēt (harnessed together and realized.

latvian said...

Lakshmi - Laime; similar word is Veiksme [Veikhsme](luckiness) and Līksme (Liikhsme)( a mirth). I wrote about vowel changes in baltic languages and dialects, so i think Lakshmi could be Līksme (Lakshmi devata - Līksmes dieviete).
I tend to think sanskrit is not just baltic language, it should be baltic inspired language for managing empire with hundreds of languages or for religic cases like latin language across world in catholic church. Analizing words and forms, many of them seems alien for baltic, it is hard to understand lot of them, but maybe i think wrong - differencies between latvian and lithuanian shows words can be different source as both languages are agglutinative languages, so it is possible sanskrit have only baltic source words whose baltics don`t know and don`t understand. About grammar - sanskrit have simple grammar, baltics complicated. Baltics agglutinative creating of words, sanskrit seems to be agglutinative too, but more is tend to compound words in a phrase.

latvian said...

Some historicists and archeologists think that baltics was the only language in ancient days in the most part of Eurasia and Northern part of Africa.

latvian said...

Lielvardes belt sign after sign read Dina Rice, German mystic, healer, who learned of the Tibetan healers and Native Americans. When you see Lielvardes belt, a German mystic was very surprised and excited. Exact published in the "new course" in Canada) 173.#. It says "the German mystics of reading." Rasma Rozītes translation of the sound recording.


Belt starts with a space. And that is to say, the planet melodies and songs (..) So begins in the Space. All belt is totally cosmic information. The following are our solar system information. So, not only a large space in the global space, but now we come to our solar system (..) you are not from Europe. You are not a European nation. You've lived a long time in India, so in Asia. You are both aryan group, but you do not have anything to do with the Aryans. Your history is similar to the Vedas. This belt has all the information. This is your book, this is your program (..) In the past you've lived in the high mountains. From there, did you come down or you were throwing down (..) You have a lot in common with the Inca, "the land in the middle" of the ancient land. Here you can see that you were forces in the Atlantic (..) The belt has much in common with Mexico or indianic. That was one nation that did not call split. They Indians.

Here are several Sirius signs. That means that Sirius was your sun, you were living in their previous country. You studied Sirius. Sirius has two sun (..) At the time you received your light from Sirius. Again repeating the planet that emits information to you. Here are four, there are two swastikas. The sun is rotated. You are the sun in any case circle. Is something cosmicaly.Maybe cosmic disaster which led to the sun taken elsewhere. You've got more sun Sirius instead. Energy is decreased. At your disposal is longer last only two major energies.Sirius strength is preserved, the energy is degraded, divorced. The initial energy cosmic initial data is preserved. What cosmic event you are divided, split and your people (..) There appears planetarial more information. Your right was a large (..) You always believed in God, and God help you. Your priests are still receiving information from the spheres and planets. You were very holy nation.

Now show some very interesting characters. Here is a meander. Meander loops are only Greeks, Inca, and in the middle nations (..) forces to then meander away to Asia. Now you're back in your old brand back home. I do not know why you've been transported to. Now you are suddenly facing forests and wild beasts rich environment. It's probably also appear in your songs. All did a great comet, a big star. It you follow and reached the ground. Now is the energy associated with this star. The great star, the comet was big in your life. You followed after (..)

latvian said...

...You were great priests who knew how to read the cosmic forces. You were very high and the mysteries of the high priest (..) The following signs telling you that your consciousness was so high that you are able to alter the fate of the beam characteristics. Your heard a divine divine. You were very highly developed spiritual astronomy and astrology. Hitherto hath the cosmic information is never interrupted. There appears brand new sign. Now you've become a nation, which had its mysteries hide (..) You see here the bridge. You yourself have never lost nor their God, not their knowledge. There are still planetary information.

Now appears in a brand-new musturs. This is an unimaginable force and energy lattice.You had the highest net energy on the earth (..) From the Lemurian, the MV at the end of the era you were nation. So, infinitely ancient nation. Here you can see that planetarial knowledge does not disappear. So far, they are still visible. Music of the spheres, the forces of singing ability and knowledge - all in your nation (..) Connection to the sky does not change. Man and God are one, they are constantly wears. Here is the sun gate through which you've been, like TIHUANAKA (Mexico) (..) This knowledge has come yet from the sun itself (..) Your ancient songs have been sung sun (..)

Here you will find cities and temples built in the cross mark. They are surrounded by energy fields, your cosmic knowledge is guarded. The following is no longer a planetary consciousness and divine consciousness (..) Now no knowledge extends only through God's messages to the ladder and become otherwise. Stairs go over other energy fields. Pyramid gets bigger. It meanders across. You are the Aryan nations. On the ground is a new arrangement caused by stars that are now appearing.

You were aware of the nine planets, not just seven. And now we come to the back nine. Divine astronauts you frequently visit. The stars you're still down. This belt is scripture, and who knows how to read is pure. You are holy, and high-nation. In this sign you will win here. You see, there's all aspire to heaven. Your destiny will never be the fate of the earth, but there is always space and celestial destiny.

If ye abide at thy God, he will always listen, because it seems that he loves you infinitely. Your people have not started in bestial, but in ancient times you had a very high stage of development. This belt is actually a holy book, and in the past only worn by priests (..) The priests were white gowns and a belt around (..) belt is pure energy patterns, and it is infinitely old.

Here is a link to website to publication and images of Lielvarde belt:

ybr said...

Replies to Shri Latvian: Please accept my sincere thanks for your extra-ordinary help. I am not adding the words given by you to the main blog-post because, it will tantamount to stealing your work. Those who are interest in Sanskrit-Latvin harmonies, they can read your comments and learn more. I have visited the site maras the link given by you. I am trying to understand it to the best of my ability using google-translation box. Right now, I can say two things. 1. Svastik sign found on the belt is an auspicious sign used often in North India, particularly rAjasthAn State. Svastik sign is used in Germany also (Hitler claimed that he was an Aryan and used svastik sign). 2. The belt used by priests might have got reduced in size. Today, we may probably link it to yagnOpavItam (yagnam= sacrifice, ceremony. upavItam = sub-cloth). In South India, we call it jandhyam. Today, it is a set of some seven (approx.) threads (less number of threads for bachelors). It is worn across the chest by brAhmins (priest caste), kshatriyas (warrior caste), and vysyas (merchant caste) who undergo this thread-wearing ceremony at the age of eight (theory), also called thread-marriage. It is also called cross-belt by some. Gods like GaNapati also wear it. There is a legend about Ganapati, that he was kubEra in his past birth. kubEra was the Lord of the North direction (uttara dik). Offering yagnOpavitam is an important step in worship of Gods. It is a 16 step procedure called shODasOpacAra pUja, 16 services to please the God who is invited as guest and worshipped with invitation, washing feet, giving water for drinking, giving towel, giving yagnOpavitam etc.

ybr said...

Reply to Shri Latvian: Two words of great importance link the Latvian-Lithuanian-Sudovian-Old-Prussian-Norwegian-Swedish culture with Indian culture. First: visn (Lord VishNu). By large number of Indians, VishNu is regarded as the Supreme God, meaning "Spread everywhere" omni-present, omni-potent, omniscient. To understand the depth of Visn(VishNu), we should nArAyana sUktam and mantra pushpam. Second: lakme-lakshmi-likshmi-laime mAte. mAte=mothers. Lakshmi is Goddess of wealth. I read at one lATvian website, there are 14 mAte in ancient lATvian culture. In India, one popular conception, we have 9 mAtE. But that number is expandable even beyond 14. In India, priests use systems like aShTOttara Sata nAmam (108 names), sahasra nAmams (1000 names). Hence, we can never have any upper limit for the number of mAte. I hope this information will help you to go deeper into 2000 before Christ - to 1400 After Christ LaTvian History.

latvian said...

.. I allow to use my work, analised words etc. I am not publicist and not doing bussiness and I don`t worry you will use any part further for your need. I wrote when I saw similarities and nothing more. For me this is an interesting topic because I just heard about sanskrit years ago but only this time had interest when saw materials about sanskrit words and phrases and that similarity which gives a feel sanskrit is not just something similar but part of our history..

Latvian language similarities not only with sanskrit but with english too and strongly (english people mentality is very close to latvian), slavic languages is other story.
For example, floods - plūdi, solstice - saules tece, but - bet, you - jūs [yuus], and gramatic a bit: to built - būvēt (end`s with `t`), to be - būt, to go - gāt (Curonian dial.), some others fallen out of mind.

I think true truth we will not know if only higher force(s)take part into process. Nowaday world leaders and leading groups don`t like people know history. "For the nation without past could never be a future".

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: All the three Latvian, Sanskrit and English, belong to the same Indo-European Prototype mother languge. Basic words remain same. England was conquered and ruled by French and Romans, when Latin and French words entered into English. If French/Latin words were shorter and convenient, they replaced Indo-European words. If Indo European words were shorter and convenient, they remained alive. E.g. you,jus, yuus given by you= yuvam in Sanskrit. English be-form be-been-being = bhava in Sanskrit. us=asmAkam. me=mE. is, est= asti. we=vayam. brother=bhrAta. father=pita. mother=mAta. go= gataha.

Today I found a surprise word in Latvian. English Sit=sthita(Sanskrit) = similar equivalent is available in Latvian. But Google translation has shown kurset as Latvian for chair. In Sanskrit, for seat/chair, we have another word Asanam from the root AsIth. Kursi, we have in Hindi, the National Language of India and kurchi in my mother tongue Telugu. We have a verb also 'kUrchO' for a request to sit when addressing younger persons. kursi seems to be a Persian word. Some historians felt that Aryan (Indo European?) migration from Baltics to India took place through Iran (Persian-pehlavi). Iran's ancient religion Zoroastrianism (pArsi) and their sacred book Zend Avesta contains Sanskrit similarities. Apart from kurset for chair, you may have more Iranian/Persian words in Latvian. While you can think of this area, I found a solution in your comments, to one conundrum that was puzzling me for the last several months. I shall shortly make a blog post on this conundrum and its solution.

latvian said...

Some feel in words from The Bible: Abel (Brother of Cain) - Ābele (Apple tree), Melhisedek (`me` seems close to things about `forest` in latvian `mežs` [mezhs or meshsh]. About Melhisedek: I see the begining of word `me, ma, me , mi,mu` and see connection with `mežs` (forest),`mednieks`(hunter), `medus`((forest) honey), malka (firewood), milna (milne), mellenes (blueberries), muklājs (slough); word part `sedek` seems similar latvian form `sēdēt, sēst` (to sit), `sēdek-l-(i)s` (a seat); and it seems that ancient the longlasting soul 969 years old men a priest has a seat in a forest and gives a prayer to God about Abraham.
Some other person`s which participate in birth of jewish nation seems like persons with baltic type names like Adam (Aadam) - latvian Ādams seems like english word ` a skiner`, Set seems like `sēd` (sitting) or `siets` ( a sieve or a bolter).About Canaan: some history scientists wrote about Canaanians as possibly baltics. Metusaal - first impresssion of this name is a throwing grass on the fireplace as it have to be for a priest (Mest (to throw)-metu (threw), zāle (a grass), zāli ((to throw) a grass); Metusaal(s) (a person who threw a grass).
I think The Bible could give answers as Holy scriptures are so old and the begining begins when jewish nation began to go through a desert when big comet run visible like baltic ancestors possibly did changing their land. Many latvians today strongly watch signs in the sky today too and watcing signs in important days in calendar for to organize sowing or predicting season circumstances.

latvian said...

one thing about the gramdha (grāmata). Just hours ago I read about `garamanti`. I read years before about Carthaag empire which could be possibly baltic tribe union, but destroyed by roman empire and lasted people went to the territory of Chad and Niger for including in freely nations, that`s why Tibesti, Ahagar and Ennedi, Air people could have whiter and darker skin (no genetic evidence yet, no scientificaly analyzed yet). Garamanti is like `gara manta` (spiritual property) and sounds and means as `grāmata`(book) if pronounced shortly. Ancient baltics didn`t spend time to create books about rubbish things, the main was the spiritual and the knowledge of God as a fundament of happy lifetime, wealth and for becoming in the heaven through Jonny gates.

latvian said...

The most have teory is, sure, that somewhere near Belarus were protoindoeuropean language, but other teory as minority is that baltics are indoeuropean ancestors. For this as exaple shows dacian language reconstructed words whose almost all are identical to nowaday baltics. Sarmats/Sarmatians as baltic tribe living together with skits, greeks and iranians in the teritory around Asov sea and Northern Caucasus did mixing together and creating new language group - slavics; lithuanians that time gave a name for this new tribe - Sarmats (transl. - the work of shame) and it was about 3rd century BC. This evidence is known because were wrote and saved and Lithuania were not conquered later. Slavic expansion later shows how possibly emerges IDE languagies.
About baltics - in the teritory of France and western Germany till 5th century BC there were prusians as owners, in Britain that time were living baltics Eirs. Then happened some prusian tribe mixing with stronger nation, possibly basques, and becames new language group - celtics and there were not enough space for living for both of them due to circumstance that western europe that time were very woodly, Germany vere strongly woodly, western Europe were rarely populated. By later celtic agression and by lesser common living area prusians left France and western Germany for place to nowaday Eastern Germany and Poland. Great migration of galls 3rd century BC till 4th century AD and later The great migrations of nations when comes Hunns 4th-5th century AD put a point and prusians lived more close to Baltic sea while from nation mix with last baltics in left territories became goths as ancestors for german language group.
Baltic language writing system vere without wovels for to understanding between any tribe everywhere baltics were, near Urals (Golyadi / eastern Galindians) or nowaday Spain (Iberians (baltics)). Military democracy as baltic territory administration system were outdated for new threat circumstances, but socialy the best and the most fair for society. Baltics didn`t have kings but generals whose had leaders at war, kin leaders were seniors as leaders by peacetime ; baltic society existed in kins and several kins togeher guarded their own territories. The living without king did baltics pregnable as they lived free and didn`t have strong tax system.
Other enigma of era is Herul tribe as northern-germans ancestors, but living together with baltics and going through Europe to help for dacians to guard their land from Roman empire. It was 1st century BC. This is historical enigma.
Historical enigma too is evidence of baltic hydronimes, toponimes around all Europe, archealogical materials whose becames contradictional with official teory as other enigma of giant human bones across the world and didn`t included into official history. Similar case is official version of The 2nd world war, In The Baltic states war history`s insight is other to Russia`s official. Latvians doesn`t celebrate the 8th May. After 2nd world war Russia is officialy a hero, but truly were agressor and one of war inducer, some of russian heros were convicted in Latvia in crimes against humanity, other some were hided by Russian government. About this case here is visible that official history lie is not removable. History is wrote by and for winners. But by the time germans and other nations don`t know their origin as while baltics know they are living near Baltic sea at least 5000 years and did have well managed trade to Greece Egypt, Hattite empire, carrying Baltic amber to far south.

latvian said...

About baltic language dialect wovel changes and differencies:
baltic tribes talk as they felt mostly not changing consonant but for their feel changing vowels.

nisarga [ ]: nature - nesargā (literary corect latvian language today, but latvian literaly language becames mostly from Džūkste (Viduslatvijas dialekts).((someone or noone) not guarding). Here could be `nisarga, nīsarga, nīsargā, nesarga, nesargā, nasarga, nāsarga, nāsarg, nūsarg and other variations ( tell is about place noone not guarding like nature as noone`s own property but as property for every one, and it is only nature as solitary forest). Other IDE languagies doesn`t have so much similar words: english `not guarding` `guard` main part is coming from latins, Italy were a cocktail of languagies and incorporated nations as etruscans, umbrians, some pelasgians, vennedians etc. but still italians had similarities with lithuanian and latvian languagies like name - (river) ford - latvian `brasls`, to `paddle` bradāt` - italian river and town `Bradano`, this river has possibility to paddle on it. Lithuanian word asilis, latvian ēzelis, italian word `asino` with word-end `o`.

Jivanmukti - dziivammukti (equal meaning and similar sounding-liberation while alive). This compound shows baltic influencies in India, no one other IDE language in Europe doesn`t have so similar sounding and meaning and so for couple-word.

For diferencies about latvian tribes and dialects it is worth to heard the same text how it is pronounced in various latvian dialects (playable speach):

Gayaatri sacred mantra is quickly sanged, Gāja ātri (Guuya-uutri (went qickly)). This couple-word shows again the same and this sacred matra is rapid sung mantra.

About 'Isvara' i wrote:
Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of Lord of the worlds - Visvara (the power over everything)(Viss (all), vara (power)).

But in latvian we had 'Īstvara (East:vuruh' too, and it means 'true-power', 'genuine-poer', 'real-power'.

'Visnu' seems like 'Visu zinu' (sanskrit Vasujnatu) (The all knowing, the all seeing (a being or a God)).

Jeevaathma (Individual Self enshrined in the human body, soul) - Dzīvotne (space for a living) , Dzīvošana (a living): latvians have similar word to 'dzīvotne' and it is 'dzīvesme' (Dzeevaesmae; 'ae' pronounced as a sound between latin 'a' and 'e' as widely 'e' mostly used by danish, swedish and norvegian people today).

Sva-ruupa - Savrupa (Savhrupa), Sava rūpe (Sava ruupe) (similar is Paša rūpe (Pasha ruupe): This couple word mostly is used to describe a natural wildly forest or a lonely human.

Vecis dziivuoti (lithuanian 'giivanti') savaa ruupee - an old man to live on his own care.
'Vecs'(old) is partialy similar to word 'sen'(anciently) and is one of oldest and unchanged words in baltics due time.

Latvians have 'karavīrs'( a war-man), karavecis (the same); i know that afgans have 'karavech' as the same meaning to 'karavīrs, karavecis'.

Here is visible baltic connection thousands of kilometres far with India, Pakistan, Afganistan and Tajikistan.

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian

rasa (water) - rasa (dew);
ganarasa (water) - gana rasas (much of dew, enough dew).
uda, udra (water) - ūdens (water).
urja (water) - urga (water-runnel).
udAzaya (lake) - ūdens azars (water lake; (dial.)).
satIsaras (lake of SatI) - SatI Ezers (lake of SatI).
Brahmasaras (BrahmA`s lake) - Brahmas ezers(BrahmA`s lake).
nArAyaNasaras (nArAyaNa`s lake) - Nārjanas ezers (nArAyaNa`s lake).
PakSas (side) - pakšķis [pakshkis](side, corner).
PiTha (place) - Vieta, Vīta [Veetha](place).
Dhūma (smoke) - Dūmi, dūms (smoke).
Dagdha (burned) - Degta, degts (burned).
SanoyA (being from of old) - senaja[senaya] (being from of old).
rit (flowing) - rit (to flow, to pass, flowing, passing).
sarit (stream) - sarit (flowing together from many little; (straume - stream)).
Madhu (honey) - Medus (honey).

latvian said...

In this sanskrit dictionary a found many words whose seem not to be baltic source:

For many words I see baltic source, but the most of others are strangers for latvian tribes, maybe lithuanian tribes or old prussian have, but I feel these words are from other languages.

ybr said...

To Shri lATvian: I am indebted to you immensely for your help. You are working harder than me.

I could not go through the link provided by you, as I have a slow internet connection. I am getting timed out too frequently. I shall try again on another day, during night time. If I am lucky enough, I shall get.

I suggest another dictionary at University of Chicago. Click this link and try. You can also browse through page numbers. I tried the word sanatana. It is on page 333. Link:
Click here to open

latvian said...

Baltic languages are more closer to aryan group, but outside aryan. Pronouncing words is similar and words too.

Interesting thing I found:
Vaimānika šāstra (ancient ufo/air ships in sanskrit) - Vaimanīga šautra (lamenting dart). Lamenting dart could be an air plane if it produces sound like lament; in english `dart` means maybe only dart, in latvian `šautra` (dart) could be anything is launched and dashes air.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: Latvian Sautra may probably be Sanskrit Sastra's equivalent. (a has a short length sound). This Sastra (dart) may be made of metals tips pre-fixed to an arrow. According to mythology astras and sastras are twins. May be a superstition, yet it exists: A sastra (simple metal dart prefixed arrow) becomes an arrow, when it is supported by magic chants like brahma astra. (Creator's astra). Here is a link to valmiki rAmAyaNa,


There are more references to darts (sautras in Latvian and sastras in Sanskrit) in Valmiki rAmAyaNa. I do not have much good opinion about the capabilities of astras and sastras. Because they have not worked against the invading Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Sakas, HUNs, Yavanas, Europeans who have mortors and guns. I can compare these guns to the darts used by one character in Sherlock Holmes and the Games of Shadow (there is also a movie) of Sir Arthur Connan Doyle.

Note: SAstra ('a' is long, sounds as in bank, tank), in SAnskrit means scripture or science. Shorter Sastra is the metal dart used as a weapon and is prefixed to bamboo/wood/metal arrows.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: Latvian Sautra may probably be Sanskrit Sastra's equivalent. (a has a short length sound). This Sastra (dart) may be made of metals tips pre-fixed to an arrow. According to mythology astras and sastras are twins. May be a superstition, yet it exists: A sastra (simple metal dart prefixed arrow) becomes an arrow, when it is supported by magic chants like brahma astra. (Creator's astra). Here is a link to valmiki rAmAyaNa,


There are more references to darts (sautras in Latvian and sastras in Sanskrit) in Valmiki rAmAyaNa. I do not have much good opinion about the capabilities of astras and sastras. Because they have not worked against the invading Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Sakas, HUNs, Yavanas, Europeans who have mortors and guns. I can compare these guns to the darts used by one character in Sherlock Holmes and the Games of Shadow (there is also a movie) of Sir Arthur Connan Doyle.

Note: SAstra ('a' is long, sounds as in bank, tank), in SAnskrit means scripture or science. Shorter Sastra is the metal dart used as a weapon and is prefixed to bamboo/wood/metal arrows.

ybr said...

Correction: May be a superstition, yet it exists: A sastra (simple metal dart prefixed arrow) becomes an arrow, when it is supported by magic chants like brahma astra. (Creator's astra). Here is a link to valmiki rAmAyaNa.

In the above line "becomes an arrow" should read as "astra". This superstition also includes a belief that when a straw of hay/grass when supported by a magical chant becomes an astra.

latvian said...

About Sastra-Astra. Latvian language doesn`t have astra, we have `austra` which is connected with east side: austrumi (east), aust (dawn) and Austras koks (Austras tree - ancient latvian legend about Immortality tree which was somewhere in east and immortal water, dead water brook, humanity source, we have beautiful signs in our belts and national clothes). Austra is connencted with life-source, happiness in a beginning of humanity, and is well sung in our Dainas.

If speaking about Astras as atomic bomb, from a distance it seams as rising sun, but I am not sure for this my opinion. Astra means `sky` too and many other meanings in sanskrit.

latvian said...

About Vaimānika.

If Vaimānika is similar latvian `vaimanīga`, it is worth to know, how this latvian word became: "Vai manu!" (Oh my!) and becomes word "Vaimanas" (laments), "vaimanīgs, vaimanīga" (lamenting).

Other words I found similar:

sanskrit - latvian

tekate, tik; yAti (to go) - tekāti, tecēti, tek; ieti (to go).

devadatta (god-given) - Dieva dota (god-given); datte (give) - doti (give).
Latvian forms of word `to give`:
dot, doti, dāvāt (to give), dod, dodi, dāvā (give, give!), deva, dāvāja (gave), dos, dāvās (will give), dots, dota, dāvāts, dāvāta (given), dodams, dodama, dāvājams, dāvājama (give-able).
Dat (tooth) - dant (tooth, (old prusian, lithuanian)).

roditi (weep) - raudāt, raudāti (to weep), raud, rauda (weeping).
Udazru, udasra, rud (weeping) - ūdens asra (water tear), raud, rauda (weeping).

zighra (rapid)- žigla (rapid);
Atya (rapid) - ātra (rapid);
zIghrasrotas (rapid current) - žiglas rites (rapid currents).

bhauma (story) - bauma (rumor, bruit).

gardha (eagerness) - gards, garda (tasty), gardēdis (dainty eater), gardumnieks (dainty eater, ravenous), gardums (dainty, knick-knack).

jhSa (fish) - zivs (fish), žuvis (fish; lithuanian).

tuccha (empty) - tukša (empty).

pIna (full) - pilna (full).

koka (wild date tree) - koks (tree).

zubhra (silver) - sudrabs, sidrabs (silver).

latvian said...

and a bit more:
sanskrit - latvian
sagati (to cover) - segti (to cover), sega (coverlet), sagša, seģene (garment).

dundubhi, DiNdima (drum, small drum) - bungas (drum) dimd, dimdina (rumble); dimd (big drums rumbling), dimdina (smaller drums rumbling); dimdinātājs (a rumbler).

dundubhisvana (drum-sound) - bungu skaņa (drum-sound), zvani zvana (bells ringing).

Are (outside) - Āra, ārā (outside), āre (visible land expanse outside).

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian

dala (piece) - daļa (piece, part).
dalita, dalati (split) - dalīt (to split), dalīts, dalīta (split).
Dalana, dala (spliting) - dalāms, dalāma (being splitting), dala (spliting).
Dvidala (split in two) - divdala (split in two), divdaļa (one from 2 pieces).

sauva (relating to one`s self, property) - sava (one`s self as property).

vadhUkAla (time during which a woman is held to be a bride) - vedekla (the same meaning).

laghava (many meanings: lightness, rapidity, slight, ease, rashness, speed, versatility, relief) - līgot, līgoti (waving dancing, waving grass or waves etc., rapidly, slightly movings or doings, nicely waving relief), līgava (bride; this word is associated with `līgot` because mariage fests are with pleasant dances).

suvidalla (women`s apartments) - sievu daļa (women`s section/part); I didn`t find `suvi` more in vocabulary, just in this word.

vira (man) - vīrs (man).

Kaksa (room) - kakts (part or corner of room).

salepa (with oily substance) - salipa (sticking together), lipīgs (gluey).

padapaddhati (trail, track, line of footsteps) - pēdu pēdoti (footing by feet).

latvian said...

labha (benefit, advantage, gaining, enjoying, attaining,knowledge, conquest etc.) - laba (good).

ramate, ramita (calm, delight in, enjoy, feel happy, be pleased) - rimt(i), rāms, rāma (the same meanings), rāmota (based in calm).

Mihika (fog) - migla (fog), mikls (moist).
ghana dhumika (dense fog) - gana miglas, gana dūmakas (dense fog).

valgati (eat) - valgs, pavalgs (food, eating at work).

sukara, sukari, zukara (pig) - cūka [tsūka](pig), suķis (baby-pig).

ubhau (both), ubhaya (pron.adj. both) - abi, abas (both), abēji, abējas , abējādi, abejādas (pron.adj. both).

adhibAdhate (bother) - abi bēdāti (both (are) bothering)

Badhate [badh](grieve, pain, oppress, suffer annoyance or oppression etc.) - bēdāt, bēdāti, bēdāties (the same meanings), bēda ( woe, sadness, affliction, disaster etc.).

vRtra (thunder-cloud) - vētra (storm, thunder-cloud with strong wind).

vAra [vR], dvAr, dvAra, dvAratA (gate) - vārti (gate), vires (gate doors); durvis, duris (doors); divvires (gates, windows, any other with two doors; divviru vārti (bicuspid gate)).

smita (smile, smiled) - smaids (smile), smaida ((is)smiling); smiet, smieties (to laugh), smej, smejas (laughing).

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian

prcchati (ask) - prasīt, prasīti (to ask).
pRSTa (asked) - prasīta, prasīts (asked).
prAz, pracchana (asking) - prasa ((somone is)asking), prasīšana (the asking) .
yAcyate (be asked) - vaicāts, vaicāta (be asked).
yAcYJA (asking for) - vaicā, vaicāja (asking for).

prativAc, pratyukti, prativada, pratiprazna, prativakya, prativacana, prativacas, pratigadati, prativakti, pratidadati (answer)
- pretī vārds, pretjūgti, pretī vada, pretprašņā, pretvārds(i), pretī vaicāšana, pretī vārds (vaicā), pretī gādāt, pretī vārdi(vākti?/vārdi?), pretī doti (dodoti?)(answer; (just answer and other answer types like `pretjūgti` `pretī gādāt`, `pretī doti` when is need to answer like in word-battle or `pretī gādāt` in gentle situations when any word is with weight.

Here is very much similarity to latvian. I found these together and it seems to be old latvian or lithuanian.
Latvian and lithuanian language have many words for one meaning.

pratilikhita (answered) - pretī likta, pretlikta (put against, put to questioner or other person).

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian

ratha (cart, chariot, car ) - rati (cart, chariot), about car latvians use `auto` but sometimes use `spēka rati`.

pakshi (bird) - paukštis (bird; lithuanian).

zanti (many meanings: almost are together with liberation of sin,then bliss, rest, calmness, alleviation, hapiness) - zints, zinte (smart knowing , inborn or not, knowledges for helping to people: doctor, spiritual master, adviser; `zintes`(plural) for latvians are known mostly as knowledges how to cope from situations when convencional medical, science, psihology can`t help for people, also helping against obsession. People practicing `zintes` is called `zintnieki`(men), zintnieces (women).

yata (spurring or guiding of an elephant by means of the rider's feet) - jāt, jāti [yuut, yuuti](to ride on a horse or donkey).

vikalpate (be questionable or optionable), prakalpate (be fit or suitable) - kalpot(i), pakalpot (to serve), kalps (a servant), kalpot priekš.. (to serve to..).

cUSati (to suck) - sūkāt, sūkāti (to suck).

valka (bark of a tree, covering) - valkāt ( to wear), valkā ( (is)wearing), uzvalks (suit), valkatnis, valkata (straggler or that which often changing his house (house wearer)).

latvian said...

sanskrit - latvian

rudhira (red, blood) - ruda, sarka (red), rudens (autumn).

asan (blood) - asins, asinis, asnis (blood).

pUti (putrid, stinking, pus etc.) - pūt, pūti (to putrefy).

vilambita (It is getting late) - vēlam būt (It is getting late).

Brahma, brahman (priest) - bramans, bramanis (ancient latvian priest).

pratigu (against a cow) - pret govi, pretī govij ( against a cow).

pratijJa (aknowledgement) - prasme, pratne (aknowledgement, skill, ability), pratēja (that one who have skills, abilities and acknowledges).

rAdhas (power, success, any gift, liberality etc.) - rodas, radās (emerge (for example - radās vara (emerge power)).

ku, kutas (where) - kur (where), kur tas (where it?).

yad tad (which so ever) - šad tad (now and then).

tad (then, so also, thus, for that reason) - tad (then), tātad (so also), tā (thus), tādējādi (for that reason).

carasi (you walk) - kur iesi? (Where [do you`ll] go?).

mari, marika (pestilence) - mēris (pestilence).

hima rtu (winter season) - ziema`s ritums (winter season).

haima (Of, relating to, or occurring in winter) - ziemas or ziem-..(the same meanings).

zunaka (a puppy (dog)) - suņuks, suņuka (a puppy (dog)).

zunI (dog (feminine)) - suns, sunis (dog), suņi (dogs).

nakha (nail) - nagla (nail).

paripluta (immersed, flooded, spring) - pāri plūda, pārplūda (immersed, flooded).

pluta (flood, flown, floating or swimming in) - plūdi (flood), plūda (flown, floating or swimming in).

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: Many many thanks to you.

I am desperately trying to break through the puzzle of phallus worship in India.

Latvia gives us the tradition of VishNu (in Latvian pagan worship vishN or visN.

We have in India, another popular God by name Shiva/Shankara/Siva/Sankara/mahAdEv. He is normally worshipped in the form of phallus. You might have seen in TVs/on You Tube about the 2013 June floods at kEdArnAth and badarinAth in uttarAncal State of India. Both are at about 12,000 ft. on Himalaya Mountains. kEdArnAth represents Shiva (literal meaning God who is auspicious), worshipped in the form of phallus. badrinAth represents Lord vishNu. In the June 2013 tragedy, nearly 3000 pilgrims died at kEdArnath, badrinAth surroundings.

One Indian historian wrote that phallus worship entered into India, from Crete in GREECE (Southern Europe). If we can trace the missing European links for this Shiva worship, we can probably work out some Latvia-Greece-Iran-India route. This is only a guess work. I am just giving ideas for expanding our searches.

Indian scriptures show demons as Shiva worshippers and dEvAs (surAs or AdityAs) as vishN worshippers. Shiva worshippers wear three horizontal white lines on their foreheads. VishNu worshippers wear U or V shaped white vertical curves on their forehead. Between the two limbs of U/V, they wear another orange Mercuric Sulphide (or some similar pigment)/sandalwood vertical mark.

I hope this info will enable you to go deeper.

latvian said...

I`m sorry about disaster in India, many deaths, destroyed belongings. Is it now going better?

About Crete in Greeece and Greece. Till 1949 in schools in Latvia were teached that baltics were ancestors of greeks. In 1949 (4 years after end of WW2) soviet government removed this content from education while scientists before WW2 and occupation verificated this as true.
That time, before greeks, Greece were inhabited by baltic pelasgs /pelasgians (well known seafarers). After Santorini supervolcano eruption and cataclysms like earthquakes, tsunamis and ashes, their land mostly were devastated and about 2/3 of pelasgians were lost. Incoming greek ancestors mixed together with left pelasgians and began new culture based on pelasgian culture basis, language too became new but on pelasgian basis.
Also alphabet letter`s studies show very similar ancient alphabet in Crete and Curonia (Courland in Latvia), also latgalian alphabet is similar. Latvian tribes used ancient alphabet till 1282 as known evidence on Kuršu kokle (Curonian kokle; tendril music instrument - lute).

Here is a link, translation need:

I am not sure about phallus worship in baltics and I didn`t hear about it in our religy. If latvian religy have it, it could be an option in rituals but not worship, also evil beings/gods latvian religy doesn`t worship.
But I can search a bit about.

latvian said...

one interesting thing about Brahma, brahman. Brahma, brahman is a priest in India, latvians have Bramans, bramanis (single), bramaņi (plural). Historicist wrote: part of bramans went to India after celtic invasion 5 thousand years ago. It is worth to read this article, it is an intervue (translation need with google chrome):

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: Thank you for the link
The webpage has abundant information.

I wrote the following comment at

"I get an impression that Christianity tried to erase the histories of ancient Baltics.".

My additional comment now: All the past histories may not be 100% glories. Nor they can be 100% trash. We may be more interested in history and facts. Simultaneously, we may learn something-s which are learnable and unlearn something-s which are not learning-worthy.

latvian said...

About phallus and Jima, Jimera, Imera, Jumis, Jumala. Link below:

ybr said...

To Shri lATvian: I am studying the mistika link. I may need more time.

In the meantime, you may be interested to know , how people can convert everything into business.

You can see Shiva business in Riga, Latvia:
click to go to

In my mother tongue, one great poet by name SrI SrI wrote: "Puppy, matchstick, soap nothing is unfit for poetry. (gist: every subject is fit for poetry)." This applies to business also. Nothing is unfit for making money. You can see how they are making money from God Shiva.

latvian said...

In western world it is a business. Also have exceptions, also in our country. Mostly vedic religies is filtred and done for business.

I am christian. But I am interested in baltic religy practice in ancient view, in ancient practice and feel, mostly all latvians were practicing paganic rituals till 18th-19th century. Baltics always believed in Highest God as eternal person, other persons in religy where just a part of Him or servants, The main God was made closer for people in a deminative form (not Dievs, but Dieviņš), He can come into room. You wrote about goddesses like mothers, this thing is visible in our Dainas.
I wrote today a little about Jumis. There are wery much similarities with Jimera and phallus. Jumis is connected with fertility, some eastern balts called him not Jumis but Imera.

Baltics also are possibly hyperboreans, for this shows ancient greek map, maybe finno-ugric nations too, we have common history and bussiness thousands of years. Scientists found exceptional gene for baltics - LWb, this gene shows our family and found our nearest nations - latvians 5.8-6.0% altruisms gene, lithuanians 5.6%, only that russians near Vologd (north from Sanct-Petersburgh) and polish nation 2%, sweds in Gotland 1%, other nations have less around. Also common gene for baltics and finns apers, other nations around less. LWb is called latvian gene by German scientists some some 5 years ago.

Inner tribes near Andes hills in South America have many common words with baltics and finns. This thing I heard in one documental film today about hippies living many years in Andes valleys, also collecting information and traditions from nearly tribes.

I read writing from other source about in ancient baltic alphabet wrote message in Equador about Uldisocis killed by bear. Uldis is a latvian name, socis - that one who have luck or have good arms, `-is` is an word ending in latvian and lithuanian, greeks too. About this writing in stone nothing is told in archealogy. Also is known, white people came to America in a glacier era and began to live together with indians. This thing is argued by scientists just some 3 years ago.

If it is more or less true, I know that full true in science by academic personal worldwide is not possible. In some things it had corrected by time, mostly not. Baltics know they were great in ancient times, for this show our Dainas, fairytails, stories.

latvian said...

I found one special book readable in internet made by latvian author. This is not official history, but gives essential facts. There are many facts from other authors worldwide, archeology, hidden facts. Google translation is need. Also I know translation will be hard to read, but no other possibilities for this book. Baltic and aryan history is hidden and only latest years come knew information about knewest theories about baltics, aryans. But this is not official history also appears opposite frontline to official history in some scientist groups around world, specialy against official USA, USSR, Russia, western Europe official history view and hidden archeological materials, falsificated facts.

One thing said in this book - word `aryans` is given for that nations, tribes whose first were doing arable lands for wheat, rye other grain cultures. These nations, tribes began cultivating grain cultures because climate change appears and did it for to survive this hard time, collecting grains as reserves. In these times these nations helped for other nations with knowledges in agriculture and how to make instruments for agriculture.

You wrote, aryans came to India from the North. One not very found thing in books is that in western Siberia were living nations which is called `seļkups` or selkups. Russians destroyed and assimilated this nation group in 16th century, but high development era for selkup lands was till 12th century for this nation group.

About finnish-ugri nations is wrote, they came to Europe only 4-6th century AD when hunns appears and began migrate in Siberia. For selkups hunns didn`t make troubles because selkups had good reputation that region. They had good traditions and high wisdom, also living their life closed for others.

Into this book is showed many aspects worldwide, there are information about archeological materials, many nations, tribes, great floods, climate change, sumerians, hattite empire and its first constitution and democrathy in world. And about nation, tribe migration, nation mix, nation special assimilation and how ancient aryan languages were formade in interests of kings.

Next links shows many readings about different themes.

Arkaima - begining of aryans:

Baltic and aryan nation protofatherland in Northern-daughter`s land:

Aryans in Siberia:


About latgalians:

Sumera - first world civilization?:

Baltic civilization heredict genocid:

Nation`s way to nowhere, what happens after empire collapse:

latvian said...

Things have to do with heredict:

Right side the reading there are next readings of book.

latvian said...

about sastras and astras:

I read some week ago a reading about ancient baltic words in last 3 writings showed in these coments, I didn`t remember which one.

Astras probably for eastern balts living from Dnepr river to Urals means gold, meanings astra, ostra,ostr, what sounds similar with latin `aurum`.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian:

About Sastra and astra.

Sastra (Sa sounds like short 'ae'). Arrows with metal tips. I instruments used in surgeries.

astra: might have been arrows with golden tips, which Aryan kings took pride in using (as exhibits for their wealth). The addition of magic chants, and attributing them super-powers e.g. AgnEya astra (Fire), vAruNa astra (rain/cloud arrow), brahma astra (creator's arrow), vishNu astra (arrow of viSN), etc. might have been later developments.

Quote from vAlmiki rAmAyaN for use of gold to tip arrows:

dIptapAvakasa~NkAshaiH sharaiH kA~nchanabhUShaNaiH
nirbibheda raNe rAmo dashagrIvan samAhitaH
sharai kANcana bhUshaNai = gold-decorated arrows.

sa visR^iShTo balavataa baaNaH svarNa pariShkR^itaH
bhittvaa saalaan giri prastham sapta bhuumim vivesha ha

bANaha svarNa pariShkRitaha = swarNa=gold. svarNa pariShkritaha = gold decorated. bANaha = arrows.


latvian said...

iT is possible, I don`t know ok or not. Ancient latvian Dainas show Austras tree with golden leaves. Maybe that why austras-astras.

Which part is too close to latvian language in sanskrit vocabulary, it is wrote in one of my comments about `answer` meanings in sanskrit:

prativAc, pratyukti, prativada, pratiprazna, prativakya, prativacana, prativacas, pratigadati, prativakti, pratidadati (answer)
- pretī vārds, pretjūgti, pretī vada, pretprašņā, pretvārds(i), pretī vaicāšana, pretī vārds (vaicā), pretī gādāt, pretī vārdi(vākti?/vārdi?), pretī doti (dodoti?)(answer; (just answer and other answer types like `pretjūgti` `pretī gādāt`, `pretī doti` when is need to answer like in word-battle or `pretī gādāt` in gentle situations when any word is with weight.

I think in sanskit there are influencies not only from baltic. Who can tell how and why constructed sanskrit? And the main basis for every language is speaker will he speak or not that language.
This is a fundamental question.

ybr said...

To Shri lATVian: The influence of Indo-European Prototype extends from the Land of Midnight Sun (Norway-sweden) to Cambodia-vietnam in South East Asia-South China Sea. Baltics, Iran, India, Indonesia, Thailand seems to be intermediate points. Compare them to the Railway Stations between Rega to Vladivostac on Pacific. What we have to break-through is whether the journeys were northwestward from Cambodia to Baltics and Norway --or-- from Norway to Cambodia. --or-- both ways just like alternate current which flows in circuits. During these journeys with cows and bulls, Aryans might have borrowed several words from their hosts/enemies/co-travellers.

One Telugu (my mother tongue) poet Sri-Sri wrote: What and how was the development of human civilisation in the caves of kro-mAnyAn (spelling mistakes are mine)?

I am dreaming of digging into what the poet SriSri aimed at in his great poem dESa caritralu (Histories of countries).

Pl. accept my hridaya-pUrvaka (heart-felt) thanks for your help. I shall try to study the prati prefix.

In the meantime, you can examine if we can dig something into the word svasti (auspicious) which is very common in Sanskrit. Hitler's favorite symbol svastik is also very common in North India, particularly in North West India, especially rAjasthan State of India. Some native business communities adorn every business account book of their book with svastik in red/saffron color, in anticipation of good things. We can also examine sva=self, stha, sthi= state, status, sit, stand, station, svAsthya = health (body in its original own State). When we say sva-stha, we mean that soul resides in its original place, unlike ill-health= asvastha.

latvian said...


I don`t think aryan people were traveling so easy. Aryans were living into one place and migrated only special cases like global catastrophe, some inhabitants migrating due less place for living for them all, or trading, maybe religy cases. They were agricultural people living into one place. Aryans changed other nation living from hunter culture to agricultural culture.

About prefix `prati`, it cauld be prefix `prat`, `prati` or `pret` , `preti` as baltics have. `Preta` are evil, tantalised ghost in sanskrit. So, baltics have `pret` meaning as `against`, pretīgs, pretīga as repulsive, `pretinieks` as opponent, `pretvara` as power or kingdom of enemy or fronts, `pretruna` as controversy, etc.

About aryans: Aryan world were big as you wrote. One thing was ice age when Scandinavia was inhabitable. Hyperboreans lived North pole. Climate change and coming long winter press them stay North pole and forlived alive only small group hyperboreans going outside this region. Scientists think to one theory, hyperborean group escaped through Taimir peninsula North of Siberia and went to south. Icy weather pressed to part into smaller groups for survive and go many directions. That why Cromanion human bones were found many places that one age period. Nowaday baltic bones are similar to ancient Cromanion human bones, I read this into one link givven to you in my comments.

latvian said...

How the science are going wrong direction.

- What is the Latvian scientists and politican treatment of your findings and the ancient Latvian holy places?

- You know, our scientists are "real scientists." Carle Darwin in his time with a "real scientist" was designated a famous geologist, who wrote an excellent job of Irish rock. When the geologist was already known, honored and greeted academic, he was walking through the mountains, one mountain peak to get the stone, which is not over his theories. He becomes clear that all his previous work is just bullshit, it's not worth anything, because he was wrong. Being a "real scientist" he takes bludgeon and rolled away the stone in the valley, so it would not disturb its findings. Our history, scientists are doing the same, only Pokaiņu shift is much harder than one large stone from the hill country. Recent years have done everything to destroy Pokaiņu, Slandered, vilify, and do the same with people who advocate Pokaiņu. Pokaiņi still counted only beautiful natural area. This is the extreme unfairness of the scientific side, though humanly they can understand.

ybr said...

to Shri lATVian:
prati - preti distinction.
Please permit me to add some ideas.

dEvanAgari script used by Sanskrit, Hindi, and many North Indian languages today, does not make distinction between short 'e' and long 'e', short 'o' and long 'o'. Consequently, some pronunciation problems may arise.

My mother tongue telugu uses a drAviDian script, in which there are separate symbols for short e, long E, short o, long O. Hence, when we write Sanskrit verses with telugu script, we take extra care of the pronunciation distinction. English equivalents in sound difference: short=pen. long=care. short=bend. long=bane.

prati - prEt.
Sanskrit prEt uses long E. It refers to spirits of dead persons, particularly ancestors. According Hndu beliefs, spirits of dead parents (etc.) hang in the air for one year, till the God of Justice 'yama' judges them and consign them to heaven/hell. During this one year, sons give food to the dead elders, every month. For ancestors, a day consists of our human one month. 15 days daytime, 15days night time. Hence 12 feedings are given during the 1 year between date of death and date of judgement. These are called mAsikams (monthly-s). From this we get the word prEtAtma (spirit of the dead).

prati in Sanskrit, we have a prefix. Meaning 1: opposing, opposite. e.g. pratidvandvi (enemy, rival). prativAdi (opponent, respondent, defendent in courts. this word is very popular even today).
prati prefix meaning 2: something given in return. e.g. prati + upakAram = good done in return for the good done by the other person. pratI + kAram = revenge.

prati prefex meaning 3: =every. prati mAsam = every month. prati nara = every man.

We have another prefix prIti, priya. These relate to something dear, and loved. e.g. priyataram, priyatamam, priya vacanam (endearing word), priya (lover, beloved).

ybr said...

Distinction between the day for ancestors (one human month 15 days day + 15 days night).
Day for Gods (dEvAs) consists of 6 months day and 6 months night total 1 human year is a day for God. Greenland, Norway, Siberia, we seem to have this 6 months day and 6 months night on this Earth. North to Rega is Norway and Siberia. Hence the ancient Gods of lATvia might have had the 1 day of 6 months light and 6 months darkness. When they moved downward, this tradition of regarding dEvAs having 6 months day, 6 months night seems to have continued. We have a viShNu temple festival around Jan-Feb. On the 11th lunar day called EkAdaSi, the viShNu temples open their North gates and take out processions of God VishNu and Goddess Lakshmi (laime, lakme mata).
Some people in India, probably having forgotten about the Scandinavian-Baltic origin, seem to believe that Tibet (now in China) is the Residence of Gods, because it is to the North of River Ganga and himAlaya mountains.

Thus every thing looks Northward.

latvian said...

In latvian literar language there are mostly showed any sound, double vowel.
Also we have sounds whose are not showed into alphabet. For example sound `o`, which pronounces (uo), (o) and (oo); and (uo) is the most used in latvian words, also some dialects using just sound `o` (short or long) too. But mostly short and long `o` is for international words. Similar is with sound `e`, it is always short, but pronouncing like just `e` or wide sound between `a` and `e` like `ea`, similar is with `ē`: it could be just `ee` or `eaea` in one long sound.

To understand sanskrit is hard. Latvian and lithuanian language have more complicity in word changing from nominative to genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, lokativ and vokative. It is changing also in plurar.
In sanskrit word changing maybe is not so complicated. In latvian complicacy doubles when adding common word.

For example words `veca govs` (old cow).

Nom: veca govs
Gen: vecas govs
Dat: vecai govij
Acc: vecu govi
Instr: ar vecu govi (with old cow)
Lok. vecā govī
Vok: Vecā govs!


Nom: vecas govis
Gen: vecu govju
Dat: vecām govīm
Acc: vecas govis
Instr: ar vecām govīm (with old cows)
Lok: vecās govīs
Vok: Vecās govis!


About prati-preti-pret:

In latvian `pret, pretī` mean`s against, it doesn`t mean something evil, `pret, pretī` is used when someone did back to someone or something, it can be good or bad.

Pretī dot, atdarīt (to back-do, retaliate) - negative or positive act.

Pretkarš -- the againstwar, antiwar.
In sanskrit you wrote `pratikaram`, latvians have:

dative: pretkaram, pretī karam.

pretī karojam, pretkarojam (we(fighting against at war)).

other meanings for `pret, pretī` latvians doesn`t have.

Prati(every; sankrit) - katrs, katri, katrējs (every; in latvian). Here are no similarities. Lithuanians have `kiekvienas` (every), so similarities are not between baltics too.


Interesting thing you wrote about souls way hanging in the air after body death. Latvians have similar tradition regaling death souls. Latvians are doing this in october, put various food on the table in outside and staying for souls of dead people. This period last`s about month.

And these souls call `Velis, veļi` which is similar with sanskrit `velati` (shaking, moving), because word `velis` come from `velt, velties` which means `to trundle` (moving while shaking), latvians about these souls think they are not going by feet but trundling-moving smoothly.


I read about Baltistan region in India Kashmir region and there living 3 nations high in mountains. One of these tribes are white and surprisingly look like baltics today. They didn`t extinct because lived and made baricades into hills against agressors whose wanted their gold, nor Alexander the Great, nor others couldn`t get up to them and was destroyed their armies by floods done by these indigenes whose pull down their dams.

Here is a link with translation need about these Baltistan white skin people.:

Maybe Hindi have something similar - latvians have sun-calendar and moon-calendar. Mostly used is sun calendar, because sun is in center in latvian life; this calendar is premade for Gregorian today year counting.

latvian said...

Hi, Ybr!

You wrote about svastika symbol. Latvians today this having a holy but forbidden symbol due to nazi crimes. Also latvians has more and more complicated svastika sign developments. Here you can see it:

About svastika meaning in latvian:

Latvians call this sign "Laimes krusts" (Laime(Laksmi) cross), then "Pērkona krusts" (Thunder cross) and "Uguns krusts" (fire-cross), latvians always knew this sign is the most powerful and holy of all baltic ancient signs.

Latvian Laimes dieviete is a goddess which solves people problems and renew their happiness, svastika is her symbol because she is renewing divine order and svastika is showing this process in action which is without disturb, this movement latvians call 'ritums' or cycle after cycle with repeat, 'ritums' also is every cycle with repeat, for example 'year'.

Next 'Pērkona krusts' (Thunder-cross) as svastika symbol-bringer is because latvians asociated thunder as divine service, divine voice, thunder sometimes punished bad people, for God`s son Janis baltics gave a dignity and title "Pērkons" (Thunder). In this case too, thunder is a force which can renew divine order.

Next type is "Uguns krusts" (Fire-cross) - fire is a holy power, with fire were done sacrifices, sometimes buried dead people.

You wrote about "svasti" meaning.

Svasti (sanskrit) - sounding similar words in latvian: savest, savesti (bring together); savest also is used for say 'savest kārtībā' (put in order).Similar is latvian word 'saviest'. Viest means to clarify and understand, 'saviest' means again to put in order.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian: Thank U very much for the valuable info on laime mAte, svastik and ritum.

In Sanskrit, we have an identical meaning of 'cycle' for ritum. Best example, is the cycle of six seasons, in a year. These are called ritu-s.

vasanta ritu : spring season, of blossoming and blooming plants.
grIshma ritu : summer.
varsha ritu : monsoons and rains. We are going through this ritu now.
Sarad ritu: rains recede. Moon will be very near. Full of moonlight. Wet forest paths start drying, and become more walkable. This season is very important for worshipping laimE daivete (Sanskrit dEvata, all Indian languages) and eight more matEs who are considered as her different forms. some names: bAla tripura sundari, saraswati, kALi, rAjarAjEsvari, annapUrNa, durga, lalita, et al. We have a thousand names for these nine Goddesses. Important: all names of same Goddess or mAta. Not polytheism.
hEmanta ritu: autumn, with falling snow.
Sisira ritu: leaves fall.
Now, the cycle (ritu cakram) gets completed, vasanta starts again.

This ritum to mean cycle, is also used for other cycles of time. Eg. monthly menstrual cycle.

I shall quote from artha, a wordnet dictionary.

"menstrual cycle ~ noun very rare

1. a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation

the average menstrual cycle is 28 days".

For ladies, this is called her ritu time.

We can write a lot about ritus, but owing to space constraint, I am not able to write right-now. We shall discuss this in length, at another time convenient to you.

ybr said...

to Shri lATVian: For the sake of clarity, I am writing. I am an atheist. I am a Marxist (you may hate me because lATvia might have suffered in Soviet rule.). Then it was not the fault of Marxism. It was the fault of dictatorship. Even Lenin (not only Stalin) was a sort of dictator. Anyway, right now it is not our subject. Hence, I am leaving that point.

About polytheism in India, which is frequently highlighted by Christian missionaries while converting Hindus, I provide this clarification.

Ancient hindu scriptures, and learned scholars consider God as ONLY ONE and FORMLESS. Idol-worshp also called saguNam is considered as a lower form of worship. A person has to use saguNam only for a limited period, when he is a novice (new to philosophy). He-she should try to upgrade him-her-self to nirguNam i.e. formless God/Goddess. When a person attains greater awareness, he-she will no longer distinguish between God-and-Goddess. This is also a deep area, I shall leave right now.

What I want to highlight for laime mAtE. Mother lakshmi, is treated as an embodiment of happiness. People give her eight forms:

dhAnya lakshmi: Corn (food or annam) is regarded as lakshmi.
dhana lakshmi: wealth.
santAna lakshmi: children are wealth.
A woman with children is regarded as Mother Goddess.
vidyA lakshmi: Goddess of learning.
Adi lakshmi: Adi=first. Foremost Goddess. also called mahA= Great. Hence mahA lakshmi.
gaja lakshmi: Lakshmi is regarded as worshipped by elephants, on the serine waters of lakes. gaja= 1. great. 2. elephant.
vIra lakshmi: Courage and valor are regarded as wealth, which a person should have. Hence vIra lakshmi.
vijaya lakshmi, jayalakshmi: lakshmi of success.

There are other versions:
e.g. AiSvarya lakshmi. People think that she represents wealth. It is not just money. Even contentment is regarded as lakshmi. There should be no "want". A person should always live happily whether there is money or not. This is called aiSvaryam.

You can see this wikipaedia link for more info: click. Strangely, this wikipedia page has a diagram of eight-angled-star instead of svastik.

8angled star.
I do not know why they have not written anything about svastik.

lakshmi mAte is also worshipped through another diagram called SrIcakram. It is a big money-making business to sell SrI cakrams. In lATvia also you may find people selling these photoframes and paraphernalia. This SrIcakram philosophy is very deep, nothing to do with the business of marketing photoframes.

latvian said...

I found in sanskrit vocabulary:

'svasti' means many meanings connected with happiness in sanskrit. And latvians too svastika is as Laima sign. Laima is doing any process together with and in God. Svastika is also God sign and thunder sign.

When svastika is ceiling - it is continuing creation process of God. When ceiling stops - begin destruction. Svastika is as model of world and universe proceses, proceses whose are basis for life and life continuity. Svastika shows sun-system with planets ceiling, also our and other galaxy ceiling.

latvian said...

About 8 edged star you wrote, it is very similar to ancient baltic sun-year calendar. 45 degrees are 45 days in each edge. Every 45 days giving one of two times of each season. In year there are 8 times of 45 days, together are 360 days, 5 or 6 last days is put for the main fests.

Also this calendar is a basis for baltic wealth in ancient time. 8 period year very good shows our seasons and season parts.

Year begins in 25th december:

1) Ziemas laiks (Winter time),
2)Sērsnu laiks (snow crust time),.
3)Pavasara laiks (Spring time),
4)Sējas laiks (sowing time),
5)Siena laiks (hay time),
6)Rudens laiks (autumn time),
7)veļu laiks (regaling dead soul time(velis doesn`t have translation),
8)Ledus laiks (Ice time).

Calendar is visible here:

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian: The calendars are excellent.

Right now, I can write about one word from the calendar:

vAsara in Sanskrit = one year. Upto now I am under an impression, that this vAsara is a changed-form of varsha (one year, from one monsoon or one rainy season per annum). 4 vAsarAs or 4 varshas = 4 years.

I shall study the calendars in depth and write on this subject again. Probably rAjasthAn, gujarAt, bundElkhand, mAlva, Western madhya pradEsh areas in India, may have ancient calendars which have similarities to your calendars.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian;
Additional findings about the word vAsara:
vAsara = week. Pl. see this wikipedia page.

click to go to

vAsara might have come from the word VATSARA = year.

latvian said...

In latvian language `vasara` comes from vord `vasa` which means wood trunk together with leaves. Other words similar doesn`t have, except `pavasaris` (spring). Lithuanians too have `vasara` and `pavasaris`, but `vasa` they doesn`t have, they have `vairalazdė`.

ybr said...

vasa (p. 277) [ 1. vâs-a ] m. garment, dress (metr. for vâs-as).

vasa (p. 277) [ 2. vâs-á ] m. halting, esp. for the night. staying overnight; resting, dwelling, sojourn, in (lc., --&degree;); abode, habitation; seat of (g.); day's journey (rare); situation, condition (rare): -m vas, take up one's abode, abide, dwell, live: --&degree;, a. abiding, living in (C.).

vasa (p. 277) [ 3. vâsa ] m. perfume.

vasagrha (p. 277) [ vâsa-griha ] n. bed-chamber; -geha, n. id.; -tâmbûla, n. betel with aromatic ad juncts.

vasa (p. 270) [ vas-&asharp; ] f. [lowing: &root;vâs] cow (V.); barren cow; female elephant (C.).

vasa-druma, m. tree under which the night is passed.

vasa (p. 270) [ 1. vás-a ] m. will, wish, desire; power, control, authority, dominion; N. of a protégé of the Asvins; N. of a people (pl.): --&degree;, a. subject to, under the influence of, overcome by;

vasa (p. 270) [ 2. vás-a ] n. liquid fat (V., rare).

divasa: heaven, day.

In my mother tongue telugu, vAsa or vAsam means a wooden rafter. one of several parallel sloping beams that support a roof.

The meaning vAsa=garment, might have come from the cotton plant origin.

Anyway, this needs greater research, in due course of time.

Our calendar and the Western calendar has certain things in common:
September = seven, seems to be akin to sapta=seven of Sanskrit.
October = eightth month, seems to be akin to ashta=eight of Sanskrit.
November = nineth month, seems to be akin to nava=nine of Sanskrit.
December = tenth month, seems tobe akin to dasa=ten of Sanskrit. The western (Gregorian) year might have started in March in earlier days, changed by Romans.

Indian calendars of different areas in India, with a few exceptions, start in March-April.
For example, Tamil (chennai), malayAlam (tiruvananthapuram), solar new year starts on April 14, when Sun enters the constellation Aries.
telugu (Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad), kannaDA (karnATaka,bengalUru) start in mArch-April (first day of the lunar month caitram.

1. This name caitram comes from the star citta (also cittira) Spica in the Constellation Virgo of Astronomy. On the full moon day, Moon appears to be in conjunction with (near) Spica, throughout the night. Every lunar month derives its name from the star (called nakshatra) which will be near to moon on the full moon day of the particular month.

2. vaiSAkha month. viSakha star. Usually May. Star Alpha libra.
3. jyEshTha month. jyEshTha star. approx. June. Antares in the constellation Scorpio.
4. AshADha month. uttarAshADha star. approx. July. Delta Sagittari.
5. SrAVaNa month. SravaNam star.Alpha aquillae. This may be also known as altair in Western nomenclature.
6. bhAdrapada month. pUrvAbhAdra star. Alpha pegasi.
7. Asvayuja month. ashwin or asvani star. BeTA aries.
8. kArtika month. krittika star. Pleiades.
9. mArgaSira month. mrigaSira star. Lamda Orion. In my view Betelguese in Orion.
10. pushya month. pushyami or pushya star. Delta cancer.
11. mAgha month. makha star. Regulus in constellation leo.
12. phAlguNa month. uttara phalguNi star. Denebola in leo.

thus, we can derive that the Western Calendar shifted from the traditional March to January, while Hindus continue with the old system.

latvian said...

interesting is `vasa-druma`. About `vasa` I wrote before. A thicket in latvian are `drums, drumi`. Vasa-druma as thick leafed tree sounds similar to latvian. Some others too more or less is in connection with dress or dressed - dressed with leaves, etc, God suit or dress is a day or a hevean.

Calendar for latvians or lithuanians were done for our climate and agricultural circumstances with 8 periods per year - typical moderate climate. For India there are 6 periods. In equator climate there are not importance to use any calendar because any day, week, month is as others through year - morning is clear, PM is some cloud, late PM thunder with rain. So, no need to calendar in desert areas, nor arctic.

Ancient Baltic baltics began year counting in winter solstice. This we see in Stonehedge too (UK), where ancient people found farest point to south on horizon where a sunrise apers.
Seems for Europe start point is winter solstice, for Asia spring.
If I understand correctly, in Asia year counting depends of zodiac.

ybr said...

About drumam= plant, tree. Very common in Sanskrit literature. eg. kalpa-druma= plant which fulfils all desires and wants. Synonyms for drumam: vriksham, pAdapam etc. amarakOSam, a 1st Century disctionary of synonyms can help you to identify more words.

e.g. amara, nirjara, dEva = Gods. amara=deathless, immortal. nirjara=without old age. dEva=Gods. If you wish to study it, I shall add a link for download in Roman Script.

Is your 45days x 8 months calendar in use at present? For what purposes it is used?

Many businessmen of North India, particularly mArwAdis of rAjasthAn State in India, start their new year in the month of kArtika, i.e. the first day after divAli festival of Lights, approx. Oct-Nov. They also use svastik. Lakshmi is the topmost Goddess. The period is peak for ancestor worship. Harvest season is yet to start. There will be some lull in agricultural operations. These seasonalities are changing owing to irrigation, atmospheric pollution, use of short-term crops.

I believe that Aryans did not have any special fascination for the numbers 7, 12, 60. e.g. 7 days in a week. 12 months in a year. 60 year cycle, as a part of calculating era. 60 seconds per minute. 60 minutes per hour. 24 hours per day. These things appear to have been imported into India from Mesopotaemia/babilonia/sumeria of Iraq.

Ancient Aryan time measurement system seems to use ghaDia, vighADia, yAmam (approx. 2.5 hours), to measure days and nights. This yAmam is also called prahAr.

For agriculture purpose, kArte system is widely used. Sun's movement from one star to another star, approx 21 days helps in identifying sowing season. For example mrigaSira (deer's head / betelguese in orion) karte starts approx. in June, when Sun enters Orion-Taurus-Jemini constellations.

45days-8months-year information provided by you is very valuable. One question which arises is why and when Aryans dropped the 45 days month, and borrowed 30 day month from Iraq/South Europe? This is very important. I shall shortly make a blog post on this helpful information provided by you.

latvian said...

to `kalpa` similar is latvian word `kalps' which mean a servant or a menial, `kalpo` is serving, `kalpot` to serve, `kalpone` a maid, `pakalpīgs` complaisant, obliging, etc.

hindi `kalpa-druma` is like `kalpdrums`or `palīgdrums, however latvian language doesn`t have and doesn`t have need to use that form due climatical circumstancies here, because trees here can grow without human care, however these word-forms are literaly correct.

In today Latvia ancient calendar is not popular, because we have 7 day week, ancient calendar is mostly used for interesents first, then ancient religy practics, also big part latvians are holding fest dates in mind, some dates are common to today cristian important dates. Also, weather anticipation traditions by weather in special dates is used. Latvian calendar is not hard to keep in mind.
Latvians are good ancient tradition keepers, not all, and many people here know which dates begins next ancient month. The most energetic called here is summer solstice, with the most energy in many aspects and fertility too. It is Līgo and Jāņi fest 23th june sunset to 24th sunrise night. In this culmination days (21-23 june) ancient baltics specially collected various herbs from fields for medical purpose, because herbs were the most active in cure.

Ancient latvians had magical numbers, as it is readable in latvian folk songs: 3,6,9,12,3x9 (trejdeviņas) (filologists doesn`t understand yet is it 27, 39 or 999).

latvian said...

... `kalpot` another meaning - dreses, instruments, roof, any other is used as favour, benefit through its lifetime, until expires, threadbares; english translation for this word is `(How long it) last, useful (a thing).

latvian said...

latvians about year sometimes spoke, for example: `pirms divām vasarām` (before two summers), so sometimes used word `vasara` when speaking about year-time, but it is for many nations today. Word `year` is ritums or gads. `Gads` is the most used, because it`s meaning is only year and this word is short. `Ritums` also means a year or a process, a sweep, a roll, for example `vasaras ritums` (summer-roll).

latvian said...


pravadati, pravadate, paripruS (to splash) - pārvadāt(i) (to transfer, to carry over); pārbrist, pāribrist (to splash over), brist (to splash).

jajhjhatI (splashing) - jājot, jājiet(i), jājoti(YAyuoTi) (riding(with horse)), pārjāti (riding over).

latvian said...

about `vriksham`. As it is synonim to `druma` in sanskrit, could it be a bushwood? If it is, `vriksham` seems similar to latvian `brikšņi` and `brist`(to splash (latvians have this word to splash in water or any other hurdle)); `brikšņi` showing a sound `brikš-` when sound comes from any hurdles on walker`s way - fallen branches, thick grass etc.

pAdapa (a shoe) - this is interesting, because `pēda` in latvian means `foot`, but `apa` is like `apavi` (shoe) and `apaut` (to shoe).

apaut (to shoe), apauj (present), apĀva (past).
`Ap` a prefix means `around`, so for that word, we have simple form without `ap` as prefix:
aut - auj - āva.

In latvian `pAdapa` could be `pēdu apavi` (feet shoes), but a shoe is `kurpe`, maybe you will think `kurpe` means `kur pēda`(where foot) as you before wrote about `kursēd` (where seat or sitting).

About `Mara` (death, to dye, pestilence). Latvians have `mirt`(to dye), `nāve` (a death).

Forms of `mirt` -

mirt (to dye), mirst (dying), mira (died), mirts, mirta (died 3rd), other forms is ` mirdams, mirdama, mirstošs, mirstoša, mirstams, mirstama, mirams, mirama (these are participles).

Mironis (a dead (a body)), mirējs, mirēja (a dying man/woman), mirtes (myrtle (herbs)), mirklis (a moment, a blink, a second), mēris (pestilence).

`Māra` for latvians is a holy name because Māra is a goddess in processes of birth/death, especialy for birth of baby and dangerous moment for mother in birth. Māra too is other name to Jesus Crist mother Maria in Latvia, as influence by Christianity, Latvia also is called `Māras zeme` (Māra land) because our patroness in heaven is Godmother. Ancient latvian Māra also is `The Bitter`, she is together with pain and woe and helps for people in their secular life.

About sanskrit `namura` (the not dying). In latvian similar is `nemira` (not died). So question is, `-mura` means `dying`, `na- ` means `not `?

I will show how prefixes used in latvian various words with `to dye` (mirt):

Mirt (to dye),mira (died), nomira (died (when showing time), apmira (died (when many people/animals died in some teritory)), pamira (necrosed ), atmira (mortify(mostly used for plants when some part of herb died), nemira (doesn`t died), izmira (died empty), pārmira (died (when children died before parents)); Jāmirst (have to die).

Prefixes in latvian:

ap-, at-, pie-, pār-, sa-, uz-, pa-, no-, ne-, na- , priekš- , pēc-, jā-, iz-, ie-, and some others.

Some prefixes could be put together as couple prefixes:

Uz-pa-sacīja, no-pār-deva, ne-pie-deva, ap-sa-nesa, ne-uz-prasa, ne-sa-gāja, ne-pa-tīkama, pēc-garša and others.

I wrote about `druma` (a thicket-wood), similar is latvian word `drūms` (frowning, murky).

latvian said...


Atara (crossing over a river) - ataras, atiras (rowing with oar from river coast). At- is a prefix.

Aritra (oar) - airi (oars), airēt(i) (to sow with oars).

Pratitara (oarsman) - pratīt, prast (to be able), airi (oar, Acc.)--- Airpratis, airpratējs, airētpratis, airētpratējs (that man who well manage rowing with oar), airpratēja, airētprate etc. (that woman which well manages rowing).

Airi forms in single:

Nom.: Airis
Gen.: aira
Dat.: airim
Acc.: airi
Inst: Ar airi
Lok: airī
Voc. Airi!

Airēt (to sow with oar), airēju (rowing, rowed), airējams, airējama (sow-able), airēšana (a rowing).

latvian said...

Sanskrit - latvian:

ArIyate (trickle or flow upon) - arī jāti (riding too, riding upon (jāti in latvian means riding with horse)), arī ieti (going too, going upon). `Ieti` sounds a bit similar `jāti`, because `ieti` sounds more `iaTi`, but `jāti` sounds `YAti`.

Interesting is sanskrit word meanings for `ardati, ardayati`, for example, do harm.

In latvian `ārdīt(i), ārdījiet(i) means to ted, to rip, to destroy and to do harm:

ārdīt, ārda, ārdīja, ārdīts, ārdīta, ārdīs (word forms noun, present, past, 3rd, future); ārdams, ārdama, ārdījams, ārdījama, ārdīdams, ārdīdama, ārdīdamies, ārdīdamās, ārdītājs, ārdītāja, ārdošs, ārdoša, ārdoties(participles).

`Ārdi` in latvian means a agricutural machinery - a furnace bar, with this bar farmers are tedding soil or sod.

latvian said...

I wrote about magic numbers in ancient latvian religy:

Here is a ancient latvian folksong:

Sagāja brammaņi
Augstâ kalnâ,
Sasēja kumeļus
Pie svēta koka.
Svētam kokam
Deviņi zari,
Ik zara galâi
Deviņas lapas,
Ik lapas galâi
Deviņi ziedi,
Ik zieda galâi
Deviņas ogas.

English translation:

went (up) bramans
the high of mountain,
bound foals at
the sacred tree.
holy tree (had)
Nine branches
Every branch tip (had)
Nine leaves
Every leaf tip (had)
Nine flowers,
Every blossom tip (had)
Nine berries.

And now I am trying to use similar words in latvian and sanskrit:

Sahaya brahma
Uddhata zaila,
pASayati AzvazAvaka
Prati brAhmi koka.
BrAhmi koka
navan zAkhA,
ekaika zAkhA asta
navan dala,
ekaika dala asta
navan puSpa,
ekaika puSpa asta
navan pippala.

Here is shown sacred tree with nine branches, each branch have nine leaves, each leave have nine flowers, each flower have nine berries.

In tranlating I found similar words to latvian:

sahaya (with horses) - sajāja (riding with horses, prefix `sa-` shows they are riding together);

Brahma (priest) - bramanis (priest).

paSayati (bind) - pasieti, piesieti (to bind).

about `prati` we both wrote, but here `prati` means `to`, in latvian folksong wrote `pie` (to, at).

`Koka` (tree(wild date)) I put that why to see similarities in language sounding.

navan ZakhA (nine branches) - devin zari (nine branches).

Nine for latvian is the most magic number, I didn`t heard other as most important. `Devin, deviņi` sounds similar to God - dievin, dieviņ in deminative form, -iņ- is a suffix in many latvian words, so it is possible.

And here sanskrit `ekaika` is wery similar to lithuanian `kiek` or latvian `ik`.

Also I found in sanskrit that leaf is `dala`, which goes common with latvian word `dala, daļa` (a part, fragment, element).

An ending in sanskrit `asta`, in latvian `aste` is a tail for animal.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian:

your observation about:
ārdīt, ārda, ārdīja, ārdīts, ārdīta, ārdīs (word forms noun, present, past, 3rd, future); ārdams, ārdama, ārdījams, ārdījama, ārdīdams, ārdīdama, ārdīdamies, ārdīdamās, ārdītājs, ārdītāja, ārdošs, ārdoša, ārdoties.

Please also examine this idea.
ari = enemy. But this 'a' is short. Not long Ari.
dama = suppress, defeat.
aridama, arindama, aridaman, aridamana = suppressor and vanquishor of enemies.

ybr said...

to Shri lATVian:

your observation about:

Atara (crossing over a river) - ataras, atiras (rowing with oar from river coast). At- is a prefix.

tara, taras, tAraNa = cross rivers, seas.
Example: tAraka rAma = God rAma who helps his devotees to cross the river/seas of domestic worries.

'tara' to mean cross water is very popular in Sanskrit literature.

e.g. diva kAka ritau bhItA ratrau tarati narmada.

A woman who feigns to be frightened when a crow says 'kA kA', crosses the River Narmada during night. tarati = crosses. This is a beautiful story. If you are interested in this story, I shall make a blog post.

tIra = river bank, sea bank, shore, coast.

Example: yamunA tIrE = on the banks of River Yamuna.

अरित्र aritra : (page 217)

अरितृ aritṛअरितृ [ऋ-तृच्-इडागमः] A rower, helmsman (Ved.). अरित्र aritraअरित्र a. Ved. 1 Propelling, urging onwards.-2 Protecting on all sides.-aritram= An oar; लोलैररित्रैश्चरणैरिवाभितः

I quote from Orkut.

Aritra Bandyopadhyay - Dec 13, 2008
well evryone has given the bengali meaning of the name "ARITRA" and it is perfectly correct that is "an oar of a boat".
now, if we look at the sanskrit meaning, because usually our names have the roots in sanskrit and this name is no exception, the meaning is "One who gives shelter or who lends help to his enemies when his enemies are or enemy is in danger or in desperate need of help and support". this reflects the broad-minded and good-heart of the people named "ARITRA"....... isn't it?
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[Er. Aritra Das]
Er. Aritra Das - Mar 31, 2010
aritra means the person who becomes the savior to his enemies also.
in bengali"ARI (means enemy) ke TRAN(savior) KORE JE.
Here is a link. You may like it. It may work.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian:
Basically, aritra might have meant 'oar' and a 'boatsman'. But a boatsman with his nAv (nauka or boat/ship) and oars helps people to cross rivers and seas. In other words he is a type of person who saves.

No wonder, Indians refer to God as a boatsman who saves people by helping them to cross the sea of sansAra (family difficulties).

latvian said...

ari (an enemy) - āra, ārpuse (outside), āre (outer expanse), ārējs (outer (power etc.)), ārinieks (outsider).
Ancient baltics always before saw with suspects strangers in our country, after crusader occupation in 13th century it was not important for society any more because everyone were included in a feodal slavery.

I think here are no importance `ari` or `Ari`, this we se between latvians and lithuanians. Lithuanians doesn`t have lengthy vowel forms as ā, ē, ī, ū. I don`t know, of course, is this important or not in this case. Other similar words for strangers, enemies in latvian doesn`t have. We have svešs, sveša (unfamiliar), svešinieks (stranger), (ie)naidnieks (enemy), pretinieks (opponent), ļaun-daris (evildoer), nodevējs (traitor).
If we are searching the most correct form to latvian-sanskrit, it could be connected with `outside`. I think language get new words itself, it depends of structure. I know russian language doesn`t have `butter` itself but get it from german word `butterbread`. Latvians have `sviests` (butter) and sviestmaize (butterbread), and `sviests` other meaning is `thrown` (3rd), as is butter always were thrown from milk cream. In any language these processes are a bit various.

`-dams, -dama, -damies, -damās`--- in latvian particples is not independent forms of words but they show a process of action, it is something like came from word `darīt` (to do) when it is focused to process when something is done while something other is done.
For example: Iedams uz upi, atradu vībotni (Going to river, (I) found sagebrush). In english there are no question about particples existing because participles are common forms with other simplier (actualy doesn`t exist), so english doesn`t need to mind it.

Maybe here are question about `d` meaning in sanskrit and `-ama` is some other.

If `ari` is enemy and from context it could be connected with baltics, then we can construct forms like `ārdarāms or ārēji darāms`(outsidely doing/done), these forms sounds similar to `ārdams, ārdīdams (do harm, etc.).
Unite viewpoint I didn`t have.

I think Atara and tara is the same, maybe opposite: a-tara and tara, `tara` as just rowing, `atara` as direction away from coast.

tIra in latvian means `clean, pure` and `tīrīt``to clean`, `to pure`, interesting that `tirIta` means `gold` because gold always vere purified ( `Tīrīts, Tīrīta`).

latvian said...

Found some new similar words with latvian:


talpa (room on the top of house, upper story) - telpa (room, space).

sagGhaTate (meet) - sa-gāt(i) (to meet (curonian dialect), sa-gāja (met, went together).

pratipadyate (meet, give back, etc.) - pretī pa-iet(i) (go off), pretī pa-jāt(i) (of to ride), pretī padot(i)(`o` sounds as `uo`) (give something to someone), pretī pēdot (of to go by feet).

vaida (knowing, learned, wise man) - vieds, vieda (wise, knowing, learned): vieds vīrs (wise man), vieda sieva (wise woman), vieda sīva(wise woman; latgalian dial.)

vArta (health, well-being, wellfare) - vērts, vērta (valuable), vērte (rate, value, price).

zvAsa (breathe) - dvaša (breathe).

dhuna (roaring) - duna (roaring);
dhunayati (roar) - dunēt (to roar), dun (roaring), dunēja (roared).

bhartsana (curse, deterrence, threatning) - bāršana (the same meanings): bārt, bārties (to curse, etc.), bar (cursing), bāra, bārās (cursed, etc.), bārts, bārta (cursed 3rd); bārdams, bārdama, bārdamies, bārdamās, barot, baroties (participles of `curse`).

palAvAH (chaff) - pelavas (chaff).

auSasa (relating to dawn, early) - ausa (dawned), ausma (dawn);
aust (to dawn), aust (dawning), ausa (dawned), austs, austa (dawned 3rd); auseklis (the morning star).

latvian said...

About oars:

Word `oar` changings in latvian:

Nom.: airis
Gen.: aira
Dat.: airim
Acc.: airi
Instr.: ar airi
Loc.: airī
Voc.: Airi!

Nom.: airi
Gen.: airu
Dat.: airiem
Acc.: airus
Instr.: ar airiem
Loc.: airos
Voc.: Airi!

Airi sounds similar to sanskrit `ari`. Is it possible that oar get another paralel meaning - enemy?

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian. Thks.vmuch.

talpa: We can think of some additional meaning like- cot.

e.g. SEsha talpa SAi = (Lord vishN) who sleeps (SAi) on talpa (cot) of SEsha (king of serpants by name SEsha).

sagGhaTate (meet) - sa-gāt(i) (to meet (curonian dialect), sa-gāja (met, went together). -- Almost all Indian languages have the word sangati = 1. meet 2. friendship 3. subject talked about in a meeting.

tasmAd vivardhatAm prItih satyA samgatir astu.
Hence, friendship with truth (satya) enhances love and affection (prIti).

Example of thing talked about in a meeting or friendly conversation: This is from my native tongue telugu. "A sangati (or samgati) EmiTi?" What is that news?

You might have heard about kumbh mELa which takes place at Allahabad. sangam= meeting, place of meeting. At Allahabad visible rivers ganga and yamuna, invisible underground river (said to be) meet, hence called trivENi sangam or samgam.

Indian philosophical literature stresses that we (householders) should shed sanga. This sanga is also nothing but meeting. Derived meaning is "attachments" which we get from our family, friends, properties, money etc. Thus sangam becomes a bond, band, bondage (bandh= shackle, tie-up).

pratipadyate (meet, give back, etc.) - pretī pa-iet(i) (go off), pretī pa-jāt(i) (of to ride), pretī padot(i)(`o` sounds as `uo`) (give something to someone), pretī pēdot (of to go by feet).
This prefix prati or preti has common usage.
examples: prati+ upakAram = pratyupakAram. Some thing good done in return for something good done by the other person.

pratIkAram = revenge, retribution.

pratigrahaNam = prati (in return) grahaNam = taking.

pratibimbam = prati (in return), bimbam = reflection of image in water, mirror. Here is a quote from mahAbhArata, book 1 Adiparvam, Chapter 1, verse 196.

yat tad yativarA yuktA
dhyAna yoga bala anvitAh-
pratibimbam ivAdarSe
paSyanty Atmany avasthitam.

English approximate gist: Meditating sages see in their own souls, the mirror image of your supreme soul.

prati+spardhi = rival, other party in dispute. spardha= dispute, quarrel, competition. prati = opposite, or in return dispute.

vaida (knowing, learned, wise man) - vieds, vieda (wise, knowing, learned): vieds vīrs (wise man), vieda sieva (wise woman), vieda sīva(wise woman; latgalian dial.)

This phrase vieda siva is very interesting. Does siva mean woman? In Sanskrit, one meaning for Siva is 'who bestows auspicious things". Example: satyam, sivam, sundaram = truth, auspicious, beautiful.

vArta (health, well-being, wellfare) - vērts, vērta (valuable), vērte (rate, value, price).

vArta. We have an additional meaning. News, communication. vArta might have in the past been used to bring news of well-being, welfare.

vArta - a popular daily in my mother tongue telugu.
vArtahara = one who brings news, messenger. Ancient Sanskrit literature has another word pratIhAri, person who brings news.

About the second meaning of price, rate, I shall study in depth. At present Sanskrit seems to use the word 'mUlyam' to mean price. amUlyam= no price, value cannot be estimated. In my mother tongue we have words like vela (seems to have nothing to do with Sanskrit), dhara, mUlyam. In Hindi language, we have words like dAm. I believe that by digging deep into ancient literature, probably we can get vArta= price, rate.

zvAsa (breathe) - dvaša (breathe).
z sounds like S in sand. A rhymes with A in bank, tank, rank, sank.

If dva in lATvian equals Sva in Sanskrit, you can examine the following ideas.

Svasur = mother-in-law, father-in-law. dvasur?
SvA = dog. dva= dog?

dhuna (roaring) - duna (roaring);
dhunayati (roar) - dunēt (to roar), dun (roaring), dunēja (roared).
You can examine words like dhvani = sound, pratidhvani = resound, echo. Pl. see prati = in return above.

ybr said...

to Shri lATvian:

your finding about pAdapa
pAdapa (a shoe) - this is interesting, because `pēda` in latvian means `foot`, but `apa` is like `apavi` (shoe) and `apaut` (to shoe).

You can examine this idea.
pAda= foot. apa=water. pAdapa=plants, trees. Etymology: Plants absorb water from soil using their feet (roots).
Example quotation from epic mahAbhArata. Book 1, Chapter 64, verse 3.

SItamArutasamyuktam jagAmAnyan mahad vanam
pushpitaih padapaih kIrNam atIva sukhaSAdvalam-
vipulam madhurArAvair nAditam vihagais tathA
This verse describes beauty of a forest.
SItam = cool
mAruta = breeze
samyuktam = with (with cool breeze)
jagAmanyAn= shining
mahad = great
vanam = forest, garden, woods.
pushpitaih = having flowered
pAdapaih = plants, trees
kIrNai = dense
atIva = very
sukha = comfort-giving
Sadvalam = I do not know.
vipulam = expansive, full
madhura = sweet
Aravair = tweeting sounds of birds
nAditam = filled with sounds
vihagais = birds
tatha, tadha= thus.

For shoes, chappals we have pAda raksha. pAda = feet; raksha=protectors.

pAda cAri = pedestrian. cAri=one who move.

latvian said...

It seems sanskrit/indian `sam` and `san` is like latvian prefix `sa`.

You wrote:
pratIkAram = revenge, retribution. In latvian `pretī kārām` means - against (we) hanged; `pretī karš` (revenge, retribution, antiwar), `pretī karojām` ((we) fought in antiwar); `pretī karam` (against war - `karam` is in Dative form here).

`War` forms in latvian:

Nom. karš
Gen. kara
Dat. karam
Acc. karu
Inst. ar karu
Lok. karā
Vok. Karš!

Nom. kari
Gen. karu
Dat. kariem
Acc. karus
Inst. ar kariem
Lok. karos
Vok. Kari!

`prati spardhi` (rival, compete, struggle etc.) - in latvian `pretī spārdi` means `against kicks`:
spērt, spārdīt (to kick), sper, spārda (present: kick), spēra, spārdīja (kicked), sperts, sperta, spārdīts, spārdīta (kicked 3rd), sperams, sperama, spārdams, spārdama (kick-able);

spārdiet! ((You) kick!), paspārdi ((You) kick a bit!), spārdījāt(i) ((You) kicked), paspārdījāt ((you) kicked a bit!).

sanskrit `Spardh` is similar with latvian `spārd-`. Meaning is not identical, because in latvian it means only kicking - horse kicking (zirgs spārda), thunder lightning kick (zibens sper).

`Spert, spēra` in latvian is used when is just one kick, but `spārdīt, spārda` when used many kicks.

Speršana (A kicking with one kick), spārdīšana (A kicking with many kicks).

Svasur (mother in law) - sieva, sīva (mother in law), sieva, sīva, sieviete, sievišķis (woman). Sievu, sīvu, sievišķu, sieviešu (women in Gen. form (as belonging or not having to/off woman)), similar is with `vīrs` (man, husband) - vīrs - vīru, vīrietis - vīriešu, vīrišķis -vīrišķu.
Another ancient form of woman/wife is made from word `vīrs` (man/husband), and it is `vīrene`(wife) and this word showing that woman belongs to man as wife.

About `Sva-dva` - I don`t see nowhere coincidence between `s` and `d`.

About dog `Sva`:

latvian: dog, baby-dog, bitch

Nom. suns, sunis, suņuks, kuce
Gen. suņa, suņuka, kuces
Dat. sunim, suņukam, kucei
Acc. suni, suņuku, kuci
Inst. ar suni, ar suņuku, ar kuci
Lok. sunī, suņukā, kucē
Vok. Suns!, Suni! Suņuk! Kuce!

Nom. suņi, suņuki, kuces
Gen. suņu, suņuku, kuču
Dat. suņiem, suņukiem, kucēm
Acc. suņus, suņukus, kuces
Instr. ar suņiem, ar suņukiem, ar kucēm
Lok. suņos, suņukos, kucēs
Vok. Suņi! Suņuki! Kuces!

about echo, resound - latvians use forms `atbalss`, `atskaņa` (echo, resound) - prefix `at`, `balss` (voice), `skaņa`(sound). For example - echo of a bell (zvana atskaņa): zvans (bell), atkaņa (echo).

You wrote about `pratidhvani` as echo. It seems like sanskrit `prati+svana`. In latvian there are not forms like pratidhvani, only pretī zvana. `zvana` in latvian is (`is calling` or `a bell` in genetive form.

Now about chapter you wrote:
sanskrit - latvian
sItam (cool) - salts (cool), saltam ((for) cool).
samyuktam (with) - sajūgtam ( conjugated (Dat.form)); similar is `sajauktam` (mixed, dat.form).

Found interesting words in sanskrit:
sanskrit- latvian:

kaTibandha- AdAtA (belt) - adīta (knitted), binde, bante (bow), josta (belt). `AdAtA` form i didn`t find anymore in sanskrit vocabulary, just in this form.

Agglutinative word forms in latvian:

ada (knitting), adata (a needle), adīklis (a knit), adījums (knitted wear), adīšana (a knitting), adījams,adījama (knitable), adītāja (knitter).

Some other words found similar:

sanskrit - latvian:

vaira (enmity) - vairas (averse, avoid), vairīšanās (avoidance).

vera (mouth) - vēra muti (opened/closed mouth) - english doesn`t have translation for word `vēra`, the same is with doors, whose could be opened/closed.

`adana` (food) - ēdiens (food), ēdama(eatable).

kRta (injured, killed, good, skin, etc.) - `krita` (fell: (fell, fell in war, fell by illness, fell down from position, fell as benefit, skin fell down (animals)), krita+ūdens=ūdenskritums (waterfall), kritala (a tree fallen down), kritiens (a fell down).

latvian said...

other words found:


LAlita (caressed,love, joy, pleasure etc.) - lolota (luoluota)(special caring of someone or something, for example child,daughter, lovely person, domestic animal (horse), feelings or plant in case of in future expected benefits in many aspects).

vaidheya (afflicted by fate, fool, stupid, relating to rule or precept) - vaidēt (to moan, to groan), vaidēja (past: moaned, groaned).

vArda (water-giving, rain-cloud) - virda (past: eddied, boiled, frothed ).

klausa (calling out to) - klausa (present: obeying, holding by).

pUraka (fullfiling, completed, filling, satisfying, flood, etc.) - pūrs (a dower, a trousseau; woman collecting values till marriage; measure, measurement).

lopaka (violating, destroying, interrupting) - lops (big domestic animal with benefit - cow, goat, horse, sheep etc. but not dog); other meaning of `lops` is for human who has non-human properties:
just `lops` or `lopisks cilvēks` (violated human).

Sanskrit word `lopa, lopaka` has coincidence with latvian word `lops`, but also word `laupa`(robbing, looting).
Sanskrit word `lopayati` with latvian word `laupīt(i)`, laupījāt(i)(1.present, 2.past).

rUsa (bitter and sour) - sūra (sUra) (the same meanings): words here are changed by places.

latvian said...

You wrote about `sanga`. I wrote about `sam` and `san` as prefixes similar to latvian prefix `sa`:

`Sanga`( a meeting) as latvian `sagāja`, `sagāj` or `sagā`. Last two are connected with curonian tribes whose had language differencies cutting endings of words.
Other words similar with `sagāja` are:

sanāca, sateka, saeima (`Saeima`-word for today parliament in Latvia), samita; the most used is `sapulce`, but also could be used altered `sagāte`.

ybr said...

to Shri LaTvian.

About sagAte to mean meeting. Sanskrit word sangati, samgati denote meeting.
About samita. Sanskrit and most Indian languages have samiti which means an Association, Union, Get together, Society etc.

The prefix 'sa' seems to be the equivalent of 'con' in English, which means 'together, along with'.

Gat verb means move, gati noun means movement, sangati noun means moving together, probably. From gat we have gamana = movement, travel etc. The English verb 'go' also seems to have this origin.

I might have written earlier here. ja= born. gat= go (includes going to the other world or death). jagat= world and worldly things, which are born and dead.

Recently I made some intensive net search about 'mate' such as laime mate. I found one phrase called PIENA MATE. She seems to be Goddess for milk and cows. In Sanskrit the root 'paya' or 'payo' means 1. milk 2. water. Though we do not have a specific term by name piena mate, we regard cow as our mother, and protection of cows from slaughter is our top priority. The prefix 'go' refers to cow (English seems to have cow from 'go'). Sanskrit uses the prefix paya, payo to mean milk / water, quite extensively.

payOdhara = 1. breast, because it bears milk. 2. cloud, because it bears water.

quote from Epic mahAbhArata. verse No 03-065-010. Describes princes damayanti.
pUrNacandrAnanAm SyAmAm cAruvruttapayodharAm.

pUrNa=full. candra= moon. Ananam=face. SyAmam= black, dark blue. cAru= beautiful. vritta, vrutta = round. payOdharam = breasted, with payo= milk, dharam = bearing, carrying.

Another example:
payomukha visha kumbham.
payo = milk. mukha=faced. visha=poison. kumbham= pot. A person who appears like milk on his face, but is full of poison inside his mind.

I shall write more about this shortly.

latvian said...

A bit about `samīti`:

`sa-` is a prefix as I wrote.

`mīti` has some different meanings:

mist (to live, to settle), mīt (to tread, to tramp), mīt (to change, to exchange). For these words some changings are coinciding in Latvian language:

mist (to live, to settle) ,mīt (present) mita (past), mists (3rd); misdams, misdama, mistot, misdamies, misdamās (participles), mišana (a settling); mītams, mītama (habitable).; mišana (a settling)

mīt (to tread, to tramp), min (present), mina (past), mīts, mīta (3rd), mīdams, mīdama, mīdamies, mīdamās, mīdot (participles); minams, minama (treadable).; mīšana (a treading).

mīt (to change, to exchange), min (present), mina (past), mīts, mīta (3rd), other are the same.; mīšana (an exchange), mītava (a place for exchange, here are not mentioned is it market or port, but also these mostly were these places).

You see coincidence between `mita` and `mita`, `mita` and `mīta`.

latvian said...

about sanskrit `kaupa` (well-water):

here are coincidence with `aka`+ `upe`=aka-upe = akupe (a well-river) or akūdens (a well-water). As I wrote for latvians `upe` could have another endings like upis (more fore today lithuanians), ape (there are river Ape and little town in northeast Latvia, also many river names in eastern Latvia begins with letter `a`.

Apa, ape, upe, upa, also old name of Donau river going through central Europe - Danube, and big river in Western Siberia - Oba - these are similar to sanskrit `apa`.

But for me it is surprisingly that I found word `kaupa`, because double wovels like `ai, ei, ie, au, uo, ei, iu` are wery common to baltics, other indoeuopean languages noone have this all sort of them. I know finns and estonians have wide spectrum double wovels like we have.

`malina` (black)in sanskrit have many meanings, mostly dirty, unclean, black, also soiled and another meanings. In latvian this `malina` is similar with `melns`(black), some tribes spoke `malns`; about soiled as malina we have clay (māls, mālains), also dirty we have (mells). But `maliņa` for latvians means `a side` in denominative.

ybr said...

For "well", Sanskrit word seem to be kUpA (U is long). It does not seem to be a double vowel.

I shall try to write more about malina shortly.
malina (a, short vowel = dirt etc.
mAla= garland. mAlina, mAlini= wearing garlands or chains.

There is a lot to write about malina and mAlina. I am tired today. I shall present it tomorrow with beautiful examples from epic mahAbhArata.

latvian said...

If similar with latvian, I show only similar words:


sarit, rIti, srotas, retas (current, stream), trisrotas (three-streamed) - sarit, satek, saplūst (flowing together), rites, straumes, tekas, teces, plūsmas (streams), rit (flowing or happening rithmicaly(various processes); trejrites(three-streamed); rises (prints of some processes in soil or other material did by stream, wheels or others).

When I search translations for word `wet`, I found this - `klidyati, kledayati`. Interesting is that this word is connected mostly with `wet`, but also word `rot` but `rot` has many meanings like pranks, annoy, roam etc.
In latvian `klīst` means `wander`:
in this example `klidyati` is similar to latvian `klīst` forms `klīdāt(i), klaiņojāt(i)`:

klīst, klaiņot (to wander) - klīst, klaiņo (present), klīda, klaiņoja (he/she wandered), klīdāt(i), klaiņojāt(i) (you(plural) wandered), klīšana, klaiņošana (a wandering)

About well-water , a form `kaupa` is showed in sasnkrit vocabulary as `well-water or coming from a well or cistern).

ybr said...

Reply to Shri Latvian. Pl. accept my grateful dhanyavAd (thanks).

You may like to have a look at the following webpage about Sanskrit-Lithuanian relationships.
I am giving this link to assist you in your monumental work.
I wish to make clear: Please do not take that I support or disagree with everything written there. Every sentence, we have to examine using Francis Bacon's methods.

ybr said...

Reply to Shri Latvian.
Below is a link to one Latvian who seems to be very interested in Sanskrit. Probably he/she may help you.
This user I found at

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Re: Sanskrit/German: grammar

Quote of karuna's comment: Of course, Sanskrit is far from being intelligible by Latvian speakers but to me the chanting of Vedic mantras when done expertly sounds almost like Latvian folk-songs in some local dialect. I have never studied Sanskrit but the similarity sometimes is astounding — intonation, phonetics, vocabulary. However, if the same Sanskrit words are pronounced by Indians in Hindi or Bengali, most of the time I can't understand what they are saying because their pronunciation is very different.

You can find the above reply at the following link.

Click to go to or type in address box to go to

Additional comment by this blog writer ybrao a donkey: karuna at may be referring to 'daina' folk songs in Latvian/Lithuanian.

Hindu priests sing Sanskrit mantras using special music of udAtta (rising), anudAtta (falling) tones (intonations). This intonation is very important in rituals like nAmakaraNam (naming), upanayananam (sub-eye i.e. the eye of knowledge gnAna, ritual commonly called thread-ceremony, adding a thread across shoulders while performing vEdic rituals), vivAha (wedding), rajasvala (first menstruation of a girl), SObhana kArya (first night consummation after marriage), shrAddha (funerals and annual ancestor worship ceremonies) so on. Music is very important and it seems to have been preserved from 1500 BC.

These mantra procedures STEP BY STEP have been standardised by Arya Samaj, an Institution started by dayAnanda sarasvati and published as books in all Indian languages, to enable people complete the procedures exactly as per vEdas. I shall search for these procedures on internet, if you are interested.

Pure vEdic mantras of rigvEda (prayers particularly to indra also called parjanya, varuna God of rains, jAtavEda fire God et al), yajurvEda (worshipping sending food to Gods called havis), sAma vEda (songs), atharvaNa vEda (special chants for curing diseases, procedures for annihilating enemies, special chants to get children, archery, etc.) are more complex to sing and they have more special music. No single person can completely study one veda, not to speak of four vEdas. Current system is each scholar specialises in one particular branch or part of a particular vEda, not full, just as we have specialists for eyes, ENT, heart, etc.

Temples organise special Vedic schools to teach children from very young age of say 5 years till they reach 20 years, the special art of singing vEdas. When we listen to them, we cannot make any head and tail of meaning, because the Sanskrit language pronunciation of that period varies from the current pronunciation. Language style has also undergone some change. If you compare the musical tones of dainas with the musical tones of pure vEdic chants, probably you may be able to make out something.

If you are interested in studying them, I shall search for mp3s on internet, if some temple Vedic school has recorded them and kept on net.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian

I reproduce below an answer I found at Yahoo.Answers, to a question on the word jahAn.

Jahan is a Persian term meaning "Universe" or "World".

The Indian words are derived from the Persian terms because Old-Persian (Avestan) language is the oldest and the biggest branch of the Indo-European languages. They all rooted from Persian. Lot of words in English are also derived from Persian. for example Paradise in english is directly rooted from the Persian term "Paradisia" or Brother in english which is Bruder in German was rooted from the Persian "Baradar", Mother from Persian "Madar" and Star from Persian "Setareh"

And the reason being is that English was derived from Latin and some Germanic languages, now where was Latin derived from? From Sanskrit, (Indian language) and Sanskrit was derived from Old-Persian language. So Persian is the mother of most of Indo-European and European languages such as English, Sanskrit, Latin and German.

Could U pl. give me yr. valuable comment.
My input: Though the answer giver seems to be confused about Persia (Iran), Prussian State (Germany), Old Prussia (Baltics), I feel that there is a need for deeper search. One view seems to be that emigration started from Baltic Old Prussia, to Prussia in Germany and from there to Persia in Iran and from there to Afghanisthan etc. Or there can be two emigrations, one from Baltic Prussia to German Prussia and another from Baltic Prussia to Iranian Persia.

I wish to have your valuable opinion.

latvian said...

Aryans were not kings, they had not slavery; aryans were free people. Their countries were not violated, religy doesn`t have human sacrifices. Otherwise aryans were pacific societies, they help for anothers variously.

Himera born in Sumera/sumerians. There began race and language mix - Imperial Himera age. This "pestilence" opened gates to evil/violated societies, this "pestilence" destroyed aryan and baltic countries/Hatite empire as second after Mesopotamia. Aryan society and economy were based on free peoples. Imperial slave society were based on fears, slavery work, aggresy and value shoveling; the most important to shovel more as anothers and to get more power for reign. Empires gave more money and resources for longlasting reign for themselves and their closer families - this again gives reason for violence in empire and wars against minorities, oponents and neighboor countries. This is vicious circle which changed world upside down. Baltics didn`t want that system of society because of religy system for baltics and their understanding of God, world and affairs whose were outstanding and the main for baltics.

After first Sumera collapse looking for better life and their own life-place military groups went to weaker countries (began slavery and language transformations). For strong countries like Egypt many of them worked as military mercenaries. . And these imigrants without history/parent memories went to many places. Later greek and latin colonies in Italy did the same with umbrians, etruscans and others. They take etruscan culture, remember Rem and Romul were etruscan legend not latin. Latin language incorporated many etruscan words, as `tutta, tutti` (nation) as it is similar to latvian `tauta`. This empire settle process ends with colonization of Baltic by germans which had not success, only in feodal slavery and taxes they gain people.
This process began ~4000 y.B.C lasted till ~1500 A.D when last baltic tribes were asimilated in Northern Germany.

It is known that this process began at first middle east asia 4000y BC, than Mediterranien sea territories~2500 y.BC., in Central Europe begining of our era and Northern Europe 3rd century AD. and to Russia 3rd century AD till ~1600 AD when as last selkup society were destroyed.

I don`t know are the oldest Iranian language. Very much changes happened there - assirians, sumerians, accadians, medians, persians their empires, different religy, violated and on fear based society not as aryans had, maybe some true in written legends. Too many aspects are different along aryans.

Here is a link to read about Himera born in Sumera (but translation need from latvian):

latvian said...

In the Bible is wrote that median and persian king after Babilon imperia destroy renewed a temple in Jerusalem. Here is a question, was Iranian language and society aryan society type. It could be, because imperator Darius got interest to renew jewish religy, otherwise he would show hate of aryan understanding of world and order as showed later Roman kings.

latvian said...

I.Zalickis book show answer to your question why iranian words are common for greek, latin, german words. Reason is the same Himera. This of course is not the most leading history. For this to understand is need to know how german language got or lend words: german tribes got many words from romans(especially in military), their tribes were under romans till the end of Roman empire, how and from where germans emerge is not known. After germans expanded to east enslavering baltic tribes in Germany. Their knowledges about how to reign came from Roman legions and their technics were in high levels. That why they could expanse far to east giving place for germans, asimilating baltics due centuries by many strategies. Cristianity and misionaires gave involve in this asimilation. Similar politics were in Latvia and Estonia. German knights wanted to asimilate Baltic inhabitants creating german country. This process were stopped by lithuanians, lithuanians got back western Lithuania 14th century and closed important way for german colonization plans and german colonists (mostly peasants) didn`t want to go by sea, this would be expensive and long process too. That why colonization stopped in Baltic.

How became Roman republic: latins were one of `nomadic` mediteranean sea nations. Together with greeks they made some colonies in Italy, they set Rome with walls and other colonies in Italy, also they had colonies in Mediterranean sea islands. They got slaves enslavering people near Rome, using their work or selling them in trade far away. Slave trade were very valuable bussiness, especialy blond woman trade to middle-east. For them important were military strategy, slavery and trade. Latins very much got from umbrian, etruscan culture, otherwise they were poor in skills but not military skills, their knowledges in architecture mostly came from etruscans, they got knew knowledges from greeks when Roman empire imported educated greek slaves - architectors, phylosophes, scientists, builders etc.

Latins lend many words from greeks, etruscans, umbrians, ligurians, tirenians, sardegnians, venettians. After Roman empire end in Italy reigned langobards and ostgots, latin language got changes, pure latin language still were used in Catholic church, but inhabitants spoke diferently. By 16th century in official latin language were upgrades, so latin language were not anymore live language, upgrades with actual words made this to italian language as known today.

Other factor is latin influences in any Roman empire language. This we see in german, english, french, spanish, romanian and others. Other nations living outside Roman empire got international words mostly 18th-20th century. In western europe these influences partialy extended in middle age by universities.

So, you see. It is hard to find unite point of view. Only searches in the most relict words in any language could show some evidence.

In english it is very hard to find those in any case. There were by first baltic eires, then galls conquered British islands partialy. After this Britain were conquered by romans. Then in Britain came militar german tribes (anglo- sachsonians and yitts). If here are paralels with word `paradisia` to which culture and language this word have the most match?

In latvian `paradisia` similar words: `pāri dosies` (above to go(when crossing river, border or other hurdle), pārradīs (will recreate/reborn), pārradīšana (a recreating/ a reborn), pārradies (came back/returned), parādīs (will show).

latvian said...

Before you asked about `prati` possible other meanings.

In latvian is one other meaning which fall out of mind, it is `prati` which mean - (someone)was able, could, knowed. `Prati` in latvian is not just `could`, `prati` is connected with mind or skills.

Here are forms:

prast (to be able) - protu, protam, proti, protat, prot (is able) - pratu, pratām, prati, pratāt, prata (was able) - prasts, prasta (3rd) - pratīšu, pratīsim, pratīsi, pratīsiet, pratīs (will be able) - protot, prasdama, prasdams, prasdamies, prasdamās, prototies, (pratāms, protams, pratāma, protama, pratījams, pratījama - older forms in dialects, in our Dainas, in latvian speak today, sometimes in literature but not official latvian); prašana (a skill).

prāts (mind), prāti (minds), prātot (to reason).

From `prast, pratīt, protīt` in latvian comes agglutinative wordforms like:

prāts (mind), prate, pratne, prasme, prote, protne (skill), prātot (to reason), pratējs, pratēja (proficient), pratinātājs (interrogator), prātība, prātīgums (wiseness, judiciousness, reasonability, intelligency), saprāts (sense).

In sanskrit dictionary i found similar words with similar meanings connected with `prati`:

pratibhA (shining, genious, creativity)- this is connected with mind; pratijJA (acknowledgment, vow) - in latvian similar is `pratējs, pratēja` (specialist or that one who can or have acknowledges), `prāta jā` (Yes by mind - prāta (by mind), jā (yes).

Sanskrit word `pratigraha`(acceptance) maybe shows proceses by mind, but maybe here are just `prati` as opposite side.

When I stop to this word, I found new similarities with latvian:

graha (holding, seizing, obtaining, taking), grAbha (mostly similar meanings) - in latvian similar is `grābt` (to grasp, to grab, to seize), `grāba` (grasped, grabed, seized).

Other similar words between sanskrit and latvian:

tArpya (garment made of a particular vegetable substance) - tērps (costume, apparel, raiment), tērpa (genetive form of `tērps`).

vAti (injure) - vāts, vāte (an injure).

ghandayate (injure) - gandējāt(i) (damage, injure).

dUrvati (injure) - dur (jab, stab), dur vāti (he/she jab an injure).

ybr said...

Here is a link to a website which contains many mp3 files of Old Prussian language, of Baltics. I downloaded one file and tried to decipher anything if al all possible. My skills are insufficient.

You may find it interesting for you.

Click to go to

latvian said...


bhUta (ghost) - būtne (unspecified human being - muse, nixie, other poethical, mitologycal being, also aliens, engels, inspiring unknown beings, also in literature).

bayAlu (afraid, timid) - bail (afraid), bailes (fears).

ati (very) - ļoti (very)

latvian said...

thanks for link you gave. Easier to analise would be reading texts or words not listening. Prussian language as western baltic language is a bit different to latvian and lithuanian. Having similar words to latvians and lithuanians in one side, in other side prussian have many different words, strange grammar and strange word endings. As they came from western Europe and living close to galls/celtics before, their language got deformations.

If you have interest, here are link to many prussian words. Maybe sistematization in this dictionary is a bit strange, words have translations with showed the best match to lithuanian/latvian/german/russian/english:

another link to pdf file prussian-english dictionary (begining in 46th page), :

Maybe in these links are words similar with sanskrit.

latvian said...

About migration: this is the most impossible question to get any correct answer. In this there are many problems for archeologists too. They can mostly only see evidence in bone form to get evidence about similar people in time periods. How I know, in ancient period is known 3 types of humans western Europe to Eastern Asia - Cromanonians europeans (whites), Cromanionians synantropians (asiates) and ahayans. For this known ancient history with many versions, also contridictional.

Nothing concrete I could say about great migrations, for me in mind comes phrases about Babilon tower and about languagies whose began to mix how told in the Bible. There is told that ancient times for entire world were one common language.

You speak about Baltic Prussia and German Prussia, it is the same place but in different time. Baltic Prussia exist till the end of 13th century, after begins German Prussia with last prussian germanization, Prussia as well known german state begins with about 18th century when begins formation of German nation, that period reign comes in one hands, Prussia got strength after Northern-Europe war, Prussia took a part of Poland lands and lands in eastern Germany. Prussia began formation of Germany and completed it by wars with Austria and France in 19th century.

For migration in far away it is need a safety. Only for common people groups worldwide or areawide it is possible, otherwise it could be `jealous walk` through aborighenous lands. For baltics is known some trade ways by rivers from Baltic by Daugava river to Dniepr river to Black sea and to Mesopotamia and Israel-Egypt. Other river-way was through Daugava river to Volga river (through entire european Russia part) to Caspian sea and to Caucasus and Iran. For great migrations it was not possible to flee away by boats. For this was used feet-way. Through Russian stepps it was not possible (drought, not possible to feed cows or horses etc), this migration could be longer as few years. If societies were common each to other, migrants could stay in places they were welcomed and places were enough for them all, otherwise they went away. For this geographically could be two ways - one to south from Baltic to today Rumania/Bulgaria/Turkey, other from Baltic to Urals and along WestChina hills to India/Iran. Northern Europe and Southern Asia is connected with only these two ways because otherwise between is deserts or stepps where to cattles or horses and people is hard to survive. Water in stepp is a problem, if only well-water helps. For migrations people must had want to keep their cows, horses alive for longer period as possible and pasture and water were very important circumstances.

latvian said...

Interesting word in sanskrit which could mean many meanings: `nirga-`. In latvian `Ņirga`means a grin. Some meanings tended to show on it like (free market, intrepid, melted, jump down, dissolved, great fair, and others). These meanings could show humiliation, also some suffixes could show proudness, also other meanings. `Ņirgāšana, ņirgāšanās` in latvian mean`s a mockery or a flout.

Ņirga (single; a grin), ņirgas (plural; grins), ņirgt (to grin), ņirgšana, ņirgāšanās (a mockery), ņirgtuve (a place for mockery, a joke-room), are other forms. With grin could destroy human or his place in society or commune/ grins could have possibility to envolve it.

Other word `gRbh` in sanskrit meanings are various - seizing, grasping, holding, choose), in latvian `griba` means (a will, a choose), gribēt (to want), grib (he/she wants), gribēšana (a choose, a will). In sanskrit `gRbh + suffixes also recognise, claim, folow, take, win, receive, obey, captivate, gain and others.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: I am studying in depth the material downloaded from the links given by you. I shall come up with something relevant shortly. Pl. do not think that I am neglecting your comments.

If you do not misunderstand, pl. permit me to make a small comment. Without malice. I read in newspapers that Latvian PM resigned after collapse of a shed which resulted in death of 42 persons. Your politicians seem to be honest.

Death of 40 to 1000 persons is common to us in India. For example, in our State Andhra Pradesh, a volvo bus hit a culvert on a roadside, its diesel tank got broke, bus caught fire, and 46 people in the bus were reduced to ashes, while driver and cleaner jumped out. The bus didn't have emergency exits. As per theory, it is said that the transport Company has to keep a few hammers in the bus to enable the passengers break the glass and escape. Where were the hammers? No hammers. The Andhra Pradesh State Transport Minister and the All India Ministry which approved the design of the volvo bus were clearly negligent, and probably are corrupt. Did they resign like the Latvian PM? Hats off to your PM who resigned.

Aryans are agni-lovers if not agni-worshippers. agni is also known as huta-aSana. huta= what is burnt. aSana= annam, food. Agni's food is what is thrown in the hOma gunDam (pit for the sacrificial fire). Volvo Buses are our sacrificial fires.

About our Sanskrit-Latvian-Lithuanian relationship studies, I shall revert to you shortly.

latvian said...

Latvian politicians mostly are not so honest, this case with 54 people dead caused some demisions, realy guilty persons - builders, companies and main city municipals didn`t demiss showing their greediness. Also some legislation mistakes and systemic problems emerge as cause of this disaster and will be changed to better. These build quality problems also emerge problems to all Europe, that-like type incorect projects are in entire Europe, mostly Northern Europe, including Finland and Sweden as analized independent expert from Finland. This faulty solution is used in many supermarkets as copy and paste. Now many buildings will be tested, have or not have similar issues and mistakes by engineers.

In feel those disaster days in Latvia were very dreary and sad, noone was impassible.

If we are speaking about `huta aSana` in latvian it is `degta ēšana`.

I found sanskrit word `kuptu` which mean a fire place or hearth. Similar thing. `Cept`in latvian means (to bake), kūpēt (to steam, to smoke), ceptu (baked (in Accusative)), kūpētu, kūpinātu (steamed, smoked (in accusative); other alternate forms from these words are `ceptuve`(a bakehouse), `kūpinātava` (a smokehouse). Sanskrit `kuptu` is more similar with lithuanian `keptai`(fried).

latvian said...

Months ago you wrote: "If we can get 3rd 4th Century A.D. history of Latvia-Lithuania-Lathgalia-suDovia-Old Prussia, may be some folklore discredited as pagan history by the Roman invaders from South Europe into Nordisc and Baltic, we can go a long way in identifying the sanatanas (ancestors) of Gupta kings. rAma and his ancestors ikshvAkus/raghus might have been from lATVian/Old Prussian region. The svastik sign (Hitler called himself Aryan and liked svastik very much) may also have the German-lATvian origin. Hindu temple preachers in India do not relish the word Hindu for their religion. They chant the phrase "sanAtana dharma" (ancient religion). Of course, the word Hindu may not be traceable in ancient scriptures of Hinduism. Then the phrase sanAtana dharma is also rare in ancient scriptures. Hence, it appears that the sanAtana dharma may be the sanAtanas of lATvia. Anyway, more research is needed.
I greatly appreciate the work of Shri lATvian."

In ancient times which last till 1200 AD., because it was so in Baltic region, every thing was longlasting in Baltic region since very long era - about 12 thousands of years, regional situation was long time different as it was other part of Europe. "Vaidelote(s)" (smart-knowers or witches is an answer on this question). Vaidelotes were womans as taked in as lions, born as ox - this was the main law to take some girl as `vaidelote` as gentes smart-knower`s keeper. These women kept any historical news or stories, included any ancient story about human society income into this world and some fragmentar information about lost societies, ice ages, common or enemy gentes, healing grasses, oral information etc. Vaidelotes usually didn`t kept information as writings. In this case in latvian tribes are known `burtnieki` - special sort of society, whose used special knit-writing system.

Into this link is the begining of alternative history, based on archeology and oral `vaidelotes` retold stories: This book is only latvian, google translate, sometimes not accurate, is neded.

If we speak about Sanaathana dharma, I have some ideas. Sanaathana dharma very seems like to `senatne` (ancient)+ `dharma` which seems to be latvian `darāma` (thing is being done, a process, a bussiness or how things had be done. Other word as `Kharma` seems to be similar to latvian word `karama` (`to be laid` from word `to lay`); it is not just to lay a dress, it is more - to lay things visible to anyone. If we think about a kharma, it is - anyone see something is not good with kharma.

latvian said...

In latvians society there were each 3 generations of maternial vaidelotes, after comes 3 generations of patrial generations of vaideloši, then again 3 maternial and again 3 patrial and again versus. This law is based on space laws.

latvian said...

word `karāma` comes from word `kārt` (to lay), `kārta, kārtot` ((a layer,to put in order) comes from this word `kārt`, so karāma could be connected with `kārta` similar with sanskrit word `Karta`. Kharma meaning for me is not partialy clear,so I wish to know your minds about.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: I believe that you mean to say that there is a word 'karama' in Latvian which is related to the word 'karta'. If so, it makes me very much happy. We are at a right juncture.

Grammar: karta is the 'doer' of the action which describes. (In English grammar subject refers to the subject matter of the sentence. In Indian languages, karta refers to doer, i.e. one who does the thing which verb describes). Karma is the object which receives that action. When we say:
rAma killed rAvaNa,
rAma is the karta. kill is the act. rAvaNa is the karma.

In Hindu philosophy, karma is a word which is extensively and intensely used. We can write 1000 pages on this alone.
Kharma - spelling and pronunciation seems to be incorrect. There is no aspirant 'h'. Hence karma. However, we use 'kharma' sarcastically/ironically to say 'my fate! = my k(h)arma!. which I have to suffer). Here kharma refers to suffering caused by past mistakes.

For the time being, I shall give three or four meanings:
1. Karma good acts and sins accumulated from previous births. This is called sancita (accumulated karma). Good acts and sins done during this birth, called prArabdha karma.
2. karma refers to 'something to be done as a duty' also called 'kartavyam' i.e. 'to do'. Particularly moral duty or assigned/expected to perform task. This sense of duty influenced great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and LokmAnya tilak.

Hindu sacred scripture bhagavadgita wants people to perform their duties without expecting 'fruits' or alternatively they have to surrender the fruits to God.

3. karma, in early Aryan sense refers to yagnam (sacrificial worship), dAnam (charity) and tapas (penance).

4. karma, in current 21c Indian Society refers to funeral cremations and burials, 15th day/30th day ShrAddha for the benefit of departed soul.

5. From the word karma, we got the word kArmika (factory worker who does work). karmAgAram (karma work + AgAram house = factory).

6. karma siddhAntam = theory of accumulated deeds from past births. This caused great damage to Indians, as they became resigned and inactive, blaming karma for everything.

We can write a lot, but it will become too long.

ybr said...

To Shri Latvian: I am tempted to write more about karma:
We have three branches in Hindu philosophy:
1. karma mArgam (path of action). Original karma philosophy centered around sacrificial worships (yagnams) and rituals. This was covered under 'pUrva mImAmsa or early discussion). Great Ancient performers kumArila Bhat and manDana Misr (about 7/8th Century AD) were great exponents of karma mArga.
2. Adi SankarAcarya conquered manDana Misr and made him his disciple naming him surEsvara. SankarAcArya popularised gnAna mArga (path of knowledge). GnAna Marga stressed more on understanding the distinction between what is eternal and ephemeral (everlasting and temporary). This is nearer to atheism.

3. From 15th Century approx. (i.e. after Muslims invaded India & Roman Catholicism entered kErala), as a reform, bhakti mArga (path of devotion started. This is nearer to Christianity. Idol worship seems to have been copied from Buddhism and Jainism.

4. Modern karma mArga involves either performances of sacrifices without killing animals (offering bananas etc.) or follow unselfish karma (action), as mentioned above for Gandhi and Tilak.

Some quotes from bhagavadgita, relating to karma:

0239. I explained you the nature of Soul, till now. SAmkhyam. Performing one's own actions and duties with the awareness of the 'soul' is YOga. Now, I shall explain you the implementation part. If you practise this intellectual plan, you will be free from the bonds of the consequences of actions of the previous births. ——⇨ EshA tE abhihitA sAmkhyee buddhir yOgE tv imAm ☀ SriNu buddhyA yuktO yayA pArtha karmabandham prahAsyasi.

0243. Those who will be interested in heaven and its luxuries perform desire-driven observances-practices-rites. Their every movement is directed towards luxury and wealth. ——⇨ kAmAtmAnah svargaparA janma karma phala pradAm ☀ kriyA viSEesha bahulAm bhOga aiSvarya gatim prati .

0247. You have the authority to act. But not to its fruits and results. Do not be a "Reason" for the fruits and results of actions. Do not develop interest in abandoning actions. ——⇨ karmaNi EvadhikAras tE mA phalEshu kadA ca na ☀ mA karmaphalahEtur bhUr mA tE samgO astv akarmaNi .

0248 Do all your actions in a state of yOga - relinquishing attachment as doer of the observances-practices-rites and receiver of results, being equanimous both to successes and failures of your actions. This state of unperturbedness is called yOga. ——⇨ yOgasthah kuru karmANi samgam tyaktvA dhanamjaya ☀ siddhi yasiddhyOh samO bhUtvA samatvam yOga ucyatE .

0249 Cease from lowly desire-driven-action. Use the path of intellect. Take refuge in Result Relinquished Action . Those who perform observances, practices and rites with an eye on results will remain debased. ——⇨ dUrENa hi avaram karma buddhiyOgAd dhanamjaya ☀ buddhau SaraNam anvichchha kripaNAh phalahEtavah .

0250 An intellectual leaves out both good deeds and bad deeds. Hence try the Yoga of Intellect. ——⇨ buddhiyuktO jahAtIha ubhE sukrutadushkrutE ☀ tasmAd yoogAya yujyasva yoogah karmasu kauSalam.

Entire chapter 3 of bhagavadgita deals with karma. Its name is karma yOga (karma=action, yOga= literally union, probably path).

ybr said...

to Shri Latvian: You mentioned "If we speak about Sanaathana dharma, I have some ideas. Sanaathana dharma very seems like to `senatne` (ancient)+ `dharma` which seems to be latvian `darāma` (thing is being done, a process, a bussiness or how things had be done. Other word as `Kharma` seems to be similar to latvian word `karama` (`to be laid` from word `to lay`); it is not just to lay a dress, it is more - to lay things visible to anyone. If we think about a kharma, it is - anyone see something is not good with kharma."

dharma (darama) in India refers to duty. Nowadays, dharma is being used to refer to religion also, e.g. hindu dharma = hindu religion. Hindu dharma includes sanatana (ancient) dharma.
The word Sanskrit literally means 'reformed'. Original Baltic language imported into India may be prAkrit (natural) which seems to be the mother of Sanskrit. But vEdic Texts and Epic Texts like rAmAyana & mahAbhArat seems to be in reformed Sanskrit. We have very few books in prAkrit, particularly in Buddhist literature.
Example: damma padam (A buddhist scripture). damma = dharma or darama. padam = patham = pAth or path i.e. way or road.

About karama to mean: to lay. This may refer to laying the body for burial or cremation. For this reason only, 'karma' is a common term used in India to refer to burials, cremations, 15th day/30th day rituals.

kharma: As suggested by you, it has a negative bad sense. Suppose, I miss a bus owing to a traffic jam, and a job interview. I lose an opportunity of getting a good job. Then I have to blame my 'kharma'. This karma may be from previous births or from the present birth. Or even from future actions, called AgAmi karma(s for plura).

latvian said...

Thanks about so much information about karma, your valuable comments about karma concept historicaly. Sorry, I had not time before to deply read and reply, I had a lot to work. Now I will reply by points.

In latvian `rāms, rāma` doesn`t mean only calm, today maybe it seems to be that, but true vision we see, for example, in earlier latvian translations of the Bible, where `rāms, rāma` means more - to be connected, immerged into connection with God or virtues; this show many differencies beside usual secular life - rāms uz dusmām ( calm/inactive to anger) or `rāmis` (a frame (for example a frame of painting)) - word `rāms, rāma` show a process to curb or to moderate when some person is curbing himself, so `rāms, rāma` sense is wide in latvian language.

In latvian ancient life religy and so today in latvian culture if we speak about karma similar understanding for us is that the do for doer gives back (good or bad) and `nelaime` (disaster) is when someone are not doing things by God`s advice he/she got `Dieva padoms, Dieva padomiņš (many times found in our Dainas)`. This show, anyone get God`s advice to do right things, this is one of things why ancient baltic religy was so close to Christianity.

Kharma purport also is showed in the Bible`s old testament - childs will bring their parent sins/punishment till 4th generation, but it is not deeply showed there. That who the Bible calls as punishment, latvians calling `nelaime` (woe) as opposite of word `laime` which comes after person didn`t follow God`s advice - it is not done, or it is too late to do by changed circumstances, so it is too `karma`, but so deeply analised this was not in baltic religy, cause is maybe baltics didn`t write books so much as more information were kept in mind and retold to next generations, there were no library cultures for baltics because there were no kings, no imperial or centralised government but only free people living in kins with well managed division of labour, writing were more important for distant comunication between baltic tribes and secret information exchange, also militar information and various help request.

Word `kārt` meanings and changings:

kārt - to hang, to lay
kārt, kāra, kārs, kar, kārdams, karams, karama, karot, kārties, karoties, karājas, karājama etc.

form word `kārt` comes word `kārta` (a layer, a turn, an order), `kārtība`(order), kārts (a pole), kārtot (to put in order), karote (spoon (because spoons were made of wood and hanged on wooden/metal hooks), karātavas (gallows).

How in sanskrit pronounces `jivita` letter `j`?

hanifah3100 said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
ybr (alias ybrao a donkey) said...

Reason for deleting above comment: Viagra spam, unconnected with our blog in any manner.

Bartias among Prussian Tribes

Bartias among Prussian Tribes
Prussian Tribes image from

Wikipedia map of Latvian-Lithuanian-group countries

Wikipedia map of Latvian-Lithuanian-group countries
We need to go deeper into ancient history


Sanskrit has Indo European origin. English, German, Latvian (Latgalian), Old Prussian too have an Indo European origin. Hence, they have several words in common. Over Centuries, pronunciation and spellings changed. When foreign words entered into English, some alien words took precedence over Indo European words because they had royal patronage.The knowledge of common vocabulary between Sanskrit and English can help us to understand Sanskrit literature better. Here is a list of such words. The list is not exhaustive. I shall add more, as soon as I am able to collect them. For some of the words, there may be only a remote relationship, still linking them will help to remember the meanings.I DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE VIEW THAT ARYANS INVADED INDIA OR INDIANS INVADED NORTH EAST EUROPE. TIME IS THE BEST HEALER AND PROVER OF TRUTH.

aa - long A as in ant, bat, cat. c - as in chalk, chat (without aspirate). The sound of k has been avoided. (In Latgalian(Latvian) the spelling 'k' is found for the Sanskrit 'c'.ch - with aspirate stress.d` - Retroflex 'd' as in dog, donkey, - long e, as in bake, care, dare, fare.ii - long i, as in beat, cheat, deal, eel, feel, heal. l` - heavy l.n` - heavy n.oo - Long o, as in goat, coat, note.s` - as in sack, salary, sand.t` - retroflex t, as in tap, ten, tin, ton, tune.uu - long u as in school, pool, tool.In Sanskrit 'y' and 'j' are often interchanged.Every effort has been made to maintain the phonetic spelling.