Tuesday, January 28, 2014

30 Usage of rama and ramanti

30 Usage of rama and ramanti


I am replying to a part of comment of comment by Shri Latvian.

topics for discussion: rama-ramanti
... In latvian `rāms, rāma` doesn`t mean only calm, today maybe it seems to be that, but true vision we see, for example, in earlier latvian translations of the Bible, where `rāms, rāma` means more - to be connected, immerged into connection with God or virtues; this show many differencies beside usual secular life - rāms uz dusmām ( calm/inactive to anger) or `rāmis` (a frame (for example a frame of painting)) - word `rāms, rāma` show a process to curb or to moderate when some person is curbing himself, so `rāms, rāma` sense is wide in latvian language. ...

REPLY FROM YBRAO A DONKEY


Thanks for the excellent feedback.

I nourish a belief that ancient Latvian literature and ancient Indian Sanskrit literature has some fraternal (brother - bhrAta) relationship, and according to history both were more ancient than Christianity and Bible. Hence, the Latvian words used in Latvian Bible, might have been derived from the ancient Latvian language.

rama (with 'a' short vowel pronunciation as in bus, lust, rust) in Sanskrit


Has a meaning of 'enjoy, be in union with, connected to while getting delightful union'. Here is a beautiful quote from Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10, verse 09.
1009. Wise fill their minds with my thoughts. Wise surrender their lives to me. Wise tell and teach among themselves about me. Thus, they enjoy and satisfy themselves. -- machchittA madgataprANA bOdhayamtah parasparam ☀ kathayamtaS ca mAm nityam tushyanti ca ramanti ca.

Meaning given at http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall_unic.html



रमंते (rama.nte) = revel; enjoy (Vr.Pr.III P Pl.AP)
रमते (ramate) = delights
रमन्ति (ramanti) = enjoy transcendental bliss
रमावास (ramaavaasa) = the abode of rama (lakshmi). This refers to Goddess Laime (beloved & wife of Lord Visn - VishNu). रमे (rame) = Oh! ramA रमेशं (rameshaM) = the lord of ramA

rAma (A is long in pronunciation


rAma is a derivation from the short-vowelled rama. Extended meaning: Refers to Prince rAma in rAmAyaNa Epic. The prince was so handsome that, even men found him lovable. Link to visit this page: Click to have a full page of Sanskrit word meanings. Useful..
...where `rāms, rāma` means more - to be connected, immerged into connection with God or virtues;...
The above quote given by you essentially refers to the connection of jIvAtma (living soul) to paramAtma (supreme God). It is the essence of the famous book bhagavad gIta which is a part of the mahAbhArata epic with 115000 verses with 18 volumes. This is nothing but yOga or a yoked condition, or "connected to God or virtues". While I cannot say whether Italian or German or Israeli bibles were influenced by bhagavad gita, LaTvian bible is influenced by ancient Latvian language and philosophy.

One funny thing on internet, observed by ybrao a donkey, about use of RAMANTI in RIGA, LATVIA


The above bhagavad gIta verse 10-09 about tushyanti ramanti (meaning: they satisfy themselves, they enjoy) seems to have been extensively used by one organisation called ISKON (International Society for KrishNa Consciousness) for spreading their cult. They didn't apparently leave Riga, Latvia. You can see this from the following webpage: Click to go to http://www.spiritual-revolutionary.com/TFTD/TFTD064.htm.

About self-control and self-regulation

At present, we are not using the word 'rama' to refer to self-control and self-regulation. Indian languages and Sanskrit have some words like: niyam, niyama, niyamam = rule, regulation, organise etc. (This word might have been influenced by patanjali yOga sUtra ashTAnga mArga's 'yama-niyamams'.) niyantraNa =regulation, organisation. (This may be from yantra= machine, organisation, structure).

(More to write. To continue).

Thursday, December 26, 2013

29

29 Latvian Language Helper
With the help of Shri Latvian, I could strengthen my interest into Latvian language and culture.

I have started in the process, -- I am, yet, pursuing a search for an offline pdf file / text file which contains a very large list of Latvian words with their English meanings.

There are many online word-search tools available, but it will be very expensive to be continuously in touch with the online dictionaries using internet. It will also be inconvenient, particularly when we cannot easily get a net connection.

I furnish here a link to & a screenshot of a Latvian language helper I found on the net.


Latvian language helper at languagehelpers.com

This link has a downloadable windows program for Latvian English & English to Latvian Dictionary. I, am unable to use it because I work in Linux-Ubuntu 10.10. Very few Latvian linux tools seem to be available.

I hope that Shri Latvian has not misunderstood me, when I wrote about the racialism of England and United States. Anyway, I have no malice against Aryans or Europeans, per se.

What I wanted to convey in my earlier blog post about the color sensitiveness of Aryans was that they wanted to preserve their white (brAhmin) , red (kshatriya) and yellow (vysya) colors, by propagating four caste system (cAtur varNya vyavastha) and by not allowing sUdras, dalits and tribals, who apparently were black/brown natives, to marry into white Aryans. Now, all that is passe (a thing of past, with dwindling relevance). India today is emerging more and more a mixed Nation.

For those who follow Gregorian Calendar, my best wishes for 2014.

New Year Best Wishes, as a matter of fact, may not really convey anything except some rhetoric. This is my atheist and Marxist view.

I am yet present engaged in re-building a Sanskrit-English ROMAN SCRIPT dictionary, which I downloaded from a University of Chicago website or somewhere else. It has more than 450000 lines. It is a text file. I brought it into an advanced Semi-finished stage. Present size 19.1 mb. My understanding is we can send files upto 25mb size through gmail. I am trying to reduce it to 10mb size, without losing words.

I feel that I need not wait till I complete rebuilding the semi-finished file. I have decided to send it through gmail to our readers who are interested in evolution of Indo-Baltic civilisation. (I am not sure whether anybody has used this phrase earlier. ) There is an Indo-Baltic Chamber of Commerce. I furnish a link to it below.

But, before I give the Sanskrit English Dictionary in Roman Script to others, I wish to share it with Shri Latvian, get his views and improve upon it. If Shri Latvian has no objection, and if Shri Latvian is interested, I shall be grateful, if he will send me his email address. My email address specificpurp. It is in [at] gmail [ .] com. Because of the problem of computer BAT spams, I am not giving the address in proper form. I shall keep his Email address confidential. But I shall not press him.

Link for Indo Baltic Federation of Culture and Commerce.

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

28

28 ANCIENT LATVIAN RELIGION — DIEVTURĪBA

History of ancient religion of Latvia and Lithuania, is very fascinating.
Here is a link to LITUANUS. LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Volume 33, No.3 - Fall 1987 Editor of this issue: Vilius L. Dundzila. ISSN 0024-5089. Copyright © 1987 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.

click to go to http://www.lituanus.org/1987/87_3_06.htm

The merit of this piece of analysis is its objectivity and apparent absence of bias.

Latvia and Lithuania (& their nearby associates like Sudovia etc.) seem to be only countries in Europe which seem to have successfully resisted the Christian onslaught. They also seem to have understood the futility of accepting one person as a prophet, and taking the sermons delivered in Church pulpits as sacrosanct(s). So called prophets (numerous in the world) who claimed to have received the words of God from some sky or something else have only succeeded in misleading societies. Aryans too had this belief that directions were spoken from the sky, called sruti(s). Only difference is, it was not just one prophet who heard it. Hundreds of sages from time immemorial, heard it. I do not, as a Marxist, whatever be the religion/culture, support the belief of hearing something from the sky.

Problem with Christianity is, it calls everybody who do not follow their path blindly, as pagan and condemn them as barbaric. Man-made religions have an in-built intolerance towards naturally-evolved modes of living. (I do not call these RELIGIONS, because religions are dogmas imposed on individuals, supported by military forces for the purpose of suppressing cultures.)

What seems to be common between Latvian Dievturiba and Indian Hinduism? -- Ans: Not accepting one man invented/discovered covered religions. Evolution of worshipping methods over thousands of years, in spite of invasions/migrations from outside.

I shall, now, quote one interesting piece of history from the article linked above.
12 When the Aryan peoples invaded and settled in the territory that is present Latvia some 4000 years ago, they already encountered a culture that was almost totally matriarchal. We might say that Father Dievs/sky formed a union with Mother Māra/earth and, to this day, the Latvian religion and culture is embedded in this sacred duality. Marija Gimbutas in her The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe (London, 1974) well describes this process.


India too had a history of super-imposition of Aryan civilisation over the Indus Valley Civilisation. Pre-Aryan India mainly worshipped Mother Goddess (though there was a reference to pashupati (Lord of cattle) in Indus Valley). Original names of Mother Goddesses were infinite in number because India was a vast country geographically, demographically, with thousands of tribes. But most tribes worshipped Mother Goddess which included her numerous forms like vana dEvata (Goddess of Forest), Goddess of harvest, Goddess bestowing children etc.

So far, historians could not decipher Indus Valley Script. The civilisations east of Indus Valley might have had some divergence, while Mother Goddess was common. Worshipping trees, serpants, and un-sculptured stones or coarsely-incompletely carved Mother-stones seems to have developed.

In the above linked article, it was said that Latvia was invaded by Aryans 4000 years back. There is also a mention of paternalism.

Many historians placed Aryan migration to India at around 2000 years earlier. Aryan civilisation brought into the country fire-worship through hOmAs (sacrifices), paternal Gods like ViShNu, Rudra, Aditya, Indra (parjanya), and sages like mitra, varuNa.

This seems to have resulted in a chemical composition of Aryan and native-Indian cultures.

Example: In today's India, Mother Goddess is supreme. She has three sons. First is creator (four headed brahma), patron-protector (all pervading VishNu), and destroyer during apocalypses (Rudra or Shiva).

The formless supreme spirit (brahman or brahmam or parabrahmam) has been relegated to monks of vEdAnta. The formless supreme spirit no longer occupies the center stage.

There are hundreds of thousands of temples in India which facilitate Mother-Goddess worship with names ranging from 1000 to 100000.

There are thousands of names for the Mother Goddess. There are thousands of forms of idols. Some can look grotesque or bizarre, but they may not really be. For example the following picture of Mother Goddess bhavAni at Vijayawada (photo courtesy Deccan Chronicle.com, modified by me) shows Mother Goddess as a punisher of Evil Forces.


Protruding tongue of the Goddess indicates that she is in a punishing posture. bhavAni dIksha (dIksha = a program usually lasting 40 days, consisting of special vows such as abstinence from alcohol, non-veg., sex, tobacco etc.) inculcates self-discipline in participants at least for 40 days in a year. It refurbishes their bodies, as they try to strengthen will power against evil influences like alcoholism.

Mother Goddess lakshmi with her eight forms includes one form as santAna lakshmi (Goddess of Children). Here is a picture which shows Mother Goddess Lakshmi (laime mAte) with God VishNu (vishN) at the centre.


Indians have even accepted Mary of Christianity as Mother Goddess. Here is a picture of Mary MAta.
Photo courtesy Gunadalamathachapel.blogspot.in.

Link: Mother Mary as Goddess

About worship methods: Churches in India, are gradually modifying their prayer methods to Indian culture, particularly to those methods which are not repugnant.

It must be kept in mind, that Indian worship methods are all-inclusive and pluralistic. They may not and need not follow the Sanskrit mantra (special Sanskrit chants) system.

Original Aryans, I believe, might not have had a temple culture. For this reason only, we do not find any references to idol-worshipped temples in RAmAyaAa and mahAbhArata. Aryan fully-sculptured temples seem to have been learnt from native Indians and probably from Buddhism.

While Christians called non-believers (of their faith) as pagans, Mohammedans called non-believers as kAffirs, Aryans called non-believers as mlEchchAs. Intolerance was in-built. Expanding religions in the name of spreading God's message is a craze. Conversions either by force (Islam) or by money-inducements (Christianity) is the motivating philosophy. They do not want to leave the ancient civilisations to live in their own ways, evolved over thousands of years.

Naturally evolved worship methods were not religions. They might have become somewhat defensive after consecutive invasions.

Even today, the principal opposition party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and its predecessors like bhAratiya Janasangh, Hindu mahAsabha, RSS etc. seem to have grown up from this defensive approach. [I oppose religious conversions. But, I am not a supporter of these movements, because they go to extremes in their love of their (perceived) religion]. They forget that Hinduism is not a religion. They tried to coin one word called Hindutva, to represent the geographical culture of India, but finally in practice, it was converted into support of one segment of Hindutva, i.e. Hinduism and its sub-segment sanAtana dharma. Geographically, sanAtana dharma and Hinduism (includes sanAtana dharma) can be parts of Hindutva which is all-inclusive for the country. But Hindutva cannot be a part of Hinduism.

For example the sanAtana dharma monks and preachers cannot impose their worship methods of Sanskrit verses, homas (fire sacrifices) on others who adopt a different method to worship same Mother Goddess or VishNu or Shiva. The problem is with the culture of imposing something on somebody else.

Progress made by me today: Latvia had SIMILARLY naturally evolved living styles which were more ancient than Christianity and Aryanism.

To continue. I reserve the right to revise this suitably, if anybody's feelings are hurt.

Indo-Aryan_migration theory

Topics for discussion: Indo Aryans

Here is an in-depth studies into the theory of Indo-Aryan Migration into India (and vice versa).
Click to go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_migration

Priest class advocated that they were born from mouth of creator. Warriors were declared to have been born from chest of creators. Trader and agriculturist class persons were declared to have been born from thighs of creator. Servant class persons were declared to have been born from feet of creator.

From an analysis of Indian mythological books Valmiki Ramayana, vyasa mahAbharata, and vyAsa mahAbhagavata, I felt that Aryans who migrated to India (not-necessarily INVADED) tried to keep their clans undiluted, by restricting occupational freedom and marital freedom from through a very strict enforcement of four caste system.

Aryan society insisted on enforcement of catur (four) varNa (color) system.

Brahmins (priests) considered themselves as white. Allowed warriors (kshatrias) to be red in color. Prescribed that vysyas (agriculturists and traders) would be yellow in color. Insisted that SUdras (servants) would be black in color.

Brahmins retained a right to marry women of warrior, trader and servant castes, calling the marriages as anulOma (favourable obverse ratio).

Priest-warrior administrators allowed a concession to warrior castes permitting them to marry trader and servant women.

Males of trader color were allowed to marry women of servant castes.

The society discouraged even the anulOma marriages, by according off-springs from such marriages a low social status and inferior occupations, though not altogether they were not out-castes. SUdras (servants) were apparently non-Aryan black natives admitted into Aryan society at the lowest level. For this reason only, they were not allowed to perform penance, learn vEdas, undergo knowledge-imparting ceremonies like upanayana (erroneous popular translation as thread-marriage).

Reverse marriages involving lower colored people (e.g. a black youth marrying a white/yellow/red girl) were called vilOma. They were banned altogether. Progenies of reverse marriages were often called 'canDAlas' and forced to live outside villages.

Many Indians, particularly those influenced by religious fanatics , refute the theory of Aryan migration into India, and insist on Aryan migration to Europe.

If Aryans were native to India which is a country of hot climate (min. day temperature 30 degrees Celsius to max. 51 celsius), melanin pigment is a must. Depending on location, people should be either black or brown and in exceptional cases red/yellow. Definitely not white. Sudras of black color should have been given the highest status, followed by yellow, red and white. If Aryans had migrated to Europe (Hitler and many Germans regard themselves as Aryans), they should have had a reverse racialism (black most superior followed by yellow, red and white at the last). Instead Europeans and Americans believe in white superiority and ill treat people with brown and black color, forgetting that BODY COLOR DEPENDS ON MELANIN.

I do not support the practices of white racialism, or brown/yellow/black racialism. We are only interested in history and evolution of societies.

Here is a link to my blog post on body colors, at my mahabhArata blog.

click to go http://mahabharatayb.blogspot.in/search/label/racialism.

Today's Indians have undergone several mutations (or even mutilations) and they may not better entertain hangovers of past.

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

#026 More about spread of Old Prussian-Latvian-Lithuanian to India

Sanskrit is a worship-language, basically. (Christian missionaries out of their misplaced cruel pride call it pagan worship), as if what is followed on Church pulpits, is not pagan. The concept of pagan itself is imaginary. Everything is pagan or EVERYTHING IS NOT PAGAN. We can't have some thing pagan and something superior.

All India radio broadcasts everyday news in Sanskrit language, 5 minutes at a time. Click to go to http://www.newsonair.com/nsd_schedule.asp.

This link contains radio daily news schedules of different Indian languages. You will find Sanskrit in the list, with 2 further links one for morning news and another for evening news. If you click the link, an mp3 file of the latest news opens in the default Movie player of your browser. You can listen to Sanskrit language. You can also save the streamed file so that you can have two or three listenings to capture the vocabulary and sentence construction.

When I started this blog, I started by studying a website which contained the sentence structure of Old Prussian language. The sentence grammar structure I found there was very similar to what is followed in the AIR news. When you hear the AIR Sanskrit news you may feel that you are listening to Old Prussian news. I am at present unable to trace that web page.

Sanskrit- worship language used in Indian ceremonies has been derived from Vedic Sanskrit. But the 4 vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Sama Veda, Atharvana Veda have a vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation which has not been much disturbed since 1500 B.C. These scriptures might have been brought by the Aryans from Baltics directly through Bactria (Central Asia and Afghanistan). Aryan prayers worry more about diseases, safety of wives, safety of cows. Rarely about horses. They might have been singing these Vedic prayers during their arduous journeys from NE Europe to NW India, to ensure that they do not fall prey to diseases, cows and bullocks do not die, wives are not stolen etc.

Some other group of Aryans might have brought it via Iran. Zorashtrian scripture Ahur Mazda has some similarities with Sanskrit and Old Prussian. While Parjanya (called Indra and Varuna-rain God in current usage, though parjanya is more referred to clouds and thunderbolts) seems to be more popular in Baltics, Zorashtrian worship seem to give greater weight to fire worship. You can study how much importance was given to fire (e.g. cremation of dead persons instead of burial) in ancient Baltics.

Parjanya in India is more important for agriculture, to get timely rains. Maintenance of home-fires (these are called "gArhaspatya agni (literal meaning "householder fires" in Aryan culture)is important, even from practical point of view. In those days there were no match sticks. Fire used to be produced by rubbing two woods called araNi. Fire is necessary for keeping warm, for cooking food, keeping wild animals and serpants away, movements during nights, threatening enemy tribals. Hence priests were entrusted with the sacred duty of maintaining fires.

Though Vedas are sung in 1500 BC language they give No. 1 rank to Indra (parjanya), and No. 2 rank to agni or fire God (also called jAta vEda). Fire is considered as the Medium (also God) which carries the sacrificial offerings called "havis" (mostly meats of slaughtered animals - modern equivalent after Buddhist influence uses clarified butter, dried herbs,shrubs). Hence fire God is also called "hutabhuk". Huta= what is burnt in fire, from which we get the word Ahuti. Zorashtrian word Ahur Mazda is also relevant here. Bhuk= eat. bhUk= hunger. Bhukti = what is eaten or livelihood for eating.

Study of Vedic worship methods may thus take us into a time capsule of worship methods used in Baltics of 2000-1500 BC, which might have been erased by Roman Catholic Invasions in Baltics, but is continuing in India, mostly undisturbed even after 3500 years. Undisturbed, because: India is a very large country. When Muslims invaded India with Islam, and Europeans invaded India with Christianity, people fled from one part of this vast land to another part. For this reason only you will find pehlavis (Iranian Aryan) even in the Southern-most tip of India, side by side with South Indian dravidian culture. This coexistence was possible because kings of different dynasties ruled their different kingdoms, following different worship methods. Forests separated them.

These methods spread to Srilanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, via Bay of Bengal, when people escaped from India to save themselves further invasions from North. For this reason only though Indonesia is the country with largest Muslim population in the world, they have Sanskrit names. Kings of Thailand also have Sanskrit names.

Thus Christianity removed everything ancient in Europe and refuses to accept that a great civilisation existed prior to Christianity and Greek in Europe. The Old Prussian-Latvian-Lithuanian-Sudovian language which escaped from Christianity and spread to India and South East Asia, now renamed Sanskrit, is continuing the old traditions.

WHAT WAS ANCIENT INDIAN CULTURE?



Funniest thing: Present Chief Religious party in India, tourist guides, preachers, monks, cultural organisations think that Aryan culture is Indian ancient culture. Many Indians believe that it spread from India to Europe and South East Asia, and not vice versa. They do not accept that it came down from Baltics.

Below this layer of Aryan culture remain hidden, the ancient cultures of India. Just as Ancient Baltic culture was hidden under the superimposed history made by Roman, Germanic invaders, ancient Indian culture is hidden under the culture of Aryan invaders. Just as Roman Catholics called Ancient Baltics pagans, Aryans did not consider ancient native Indians as humans. They made them monkeys with tails (see Ramayana scripture), serpants (nAgas), etc. Note: asurAs , daityas, rAkshasAs, demons, were also branches of Aryans. These are not to be confused with original inhabitants of India, who were driven to forests. May be bhils, gonds, santAls (hundreds of other tribes) were original inhabitants of India, just as American Indians in US, gipsies in Europe, and aboriginals in Australia.

Thursday, August 29, 2013

#025 Reply to Shri lATvian about trejdevinas

Shri lATvian commented as under:



latvian has left a new comment on your post "OLD SAXON ENGLISH, LATVIAN, LITHUANIAN, OLD PRUSSI...":

to `kalpa` similar is latvian word `kalps' which mean a servant or a menial, `kalpo` is serving, `kalpot` to serve, `kalpone` a maid, `pakalpīgs` complaisant, obliging, etc.

hindi `kalpa-druma` is like `kalpdrums`or `palīgdrums, however latvian language doesn`t have and doesn`t have need to use that form due climatical circumstancies here, because trees here can grow without human care, however these word-forms are literaly correct.

In today Latvia ancient calendar is not popular, because we have 7 day week, ancient calendar is mostly used for interesents first, then ancient religy practics, also big part latvians are holding fest dates in mind, some dates are common to today cristian important dates. Also, weather anticipation traditions by weather in special dates is used. Latvian calendar is not hard to keep in mind.

Latvians are good ancient tradition keepers, not all, and many people here know which dates begins next ancient month. The most energetic called here is summer solstice, with the most energy in many aspects and fertility too. It is Līgo and Jāņi fest 23th june sunset to 24th sunrise night. In this culmination days (21-23 june) ancient baltics specially collected various herbs from fields for medical purpose, because herbs were the most active in cure.

Ancient latvians had magical numbers, as it is readable in latvian folk songs: 3,6,9,12,3x9 (trejdeviņas) (filologists doesn`t understand yet is it 27, 39 or 999).

ybrao a donkey's replies


Aryans seem to attach great importance to the number 9, rather than 7.

For trejdevinas, the interpretation of 27 seems to be more appropriate.

Reasons: The nakshatra (star-area) system followed in Indian-Aryan astronomy/astrology has some settings using 9 and 27.

Zodiac of 12 constellations is the path of Sun's travel on celestial path. (Or Earth's orbit.)

Indian astronomy/astrology divides this 360 circular path while accepting the division into 12 constellations, has also divided the whole distance into 27 nakshatras (star-areas, not exactly stars). Each nakshatra will have four legs-feet (pAdas-Latvian: paedi?). 27x4 = 108 pAdas or feet.

These 108 pAdas-feet, when distributed among 12 zodiac-constellations-called rASi, gets 108/12= 9 feet.

Examples: The constellation Aries (mEsham-goat) gets nakshatra aSvin 4 feet, nakshatra bharaNi 4 feet, and nakshatra krittika (pledius) 1st foot of its 4 feet. Total 9 feet.

The constellation Taurus (vrishabham-bull) gets nakshatra krittika 3 ft, rOhiNi (aldebaran) 4 ft, mrigaSira (lamda orion) 2 feet, total 9 feet, make taurus.

The constellation Jemini (mithunam-couple of husband and wife) gets nakshatra mrigaSira 2 feet, Arudra (also Ardra betelguese) 4 feet, punarvasu 3 feet, total 9 feet, make jemini.

So on, and so forth. Here is a link to wikipedia, for ready reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra.

Thus 9 and 27 are very important. Hence trejdevinas, can be 27.

I am unable to trace anything in Sanskrit, which shows the importance of 39 or 999.

vAlmiki rAmAyana, the Sanskrit Epic is considered as the first literary work in India (vEdAs are considered as sacred scriptures (also samhitas), but are not regarded as literary works. vAlmiki rAmAyaNa, whenever some auspicious days are to be referred to, mentions about nakshatras (27 above), but does not mention about day of the week or the lunar fortnights.

atharvaNa vEda (the 4th vEda) contains numerous procedures for curing diseases, self-defence procedures against enemies, offense procedures against enemies, etc. using herbs and chants. For certain procedures, 27 nakshatras are used.

Apart from the constellations of zodiac (aries, taurus etc.), UrsA Major and Pole-star are very important.

Here is an image from apod.nasa.gov.

.

The set of seven important stars in the Ursa Major is called saptarshi manDalam = The zone of seven sages. The second star of it from the tail of the kite, is called vaSishTha considered as leader of the seven sages. His wife is called arundhati. Some Hindu marriage rituals have a procedure of the priest showing the vaSishTha and arundhati to the bride and bridegroom, pointing to the Northern Sky. It will be a pleasant proposition to identify the Stars during night time.

Pole-star is considered as an important adjunct of this saptarshi manDalam.
.
This little dipper pole-star can be easily identified with naked eye by drawing a straight-line downwards from the left two vertical stars of the quadrilateral of the Ursa Major.

In Indian astronomical literatue, pole-star is called 'dhriva nakshatram' or the 'star of the dhriva'. The story of dhriva is identified with Lord VishN. According to mythology, Lord VishN blessed the child dhriva, to become a glorious star and shine in the polar sky, appearing year round without rising any and setting. For us from India, pole-star is visible on the Northern sky, without changing its position technically. It changes its position, but not much, whereas Ursa Major rises and sets quite clearly. Its neighbor stars of the Zodiac i.e. the members of Cancer, Leo also rise in the East and set in the West, they reach their apex-zenith at some point of time in night etc.

What I wish to highlight here is, Indians attach great importance to the North Pole-star, and Ursa Major. I understand that pole-star and Ursa Major will be straight over-the-head (also called culminating) in Norway-Sweden. Probably, they may be at a culminating level (apex-zenith or mid-sky at top) even in Riga.

All these stellar connections are important for understanding the viShn-Lakme mAtE God-Goddess relationshp of India and lATvia. (To continue with more information).

Monday, August 26, 2013

#024 Ancestor worship in ancient and present India

My friend Shri lATvian has informed in his comments as under (I quote from his comment):
... Interesting thing you wrote about souls way hanging in the air after body death. Latvians have similar tradition regaling death souls. Latvians are doing this in october, put various food on the table in outside and staying for souls of dead people. This period last`s about month. ...
.
ybrao a donkey
Click to go to http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Samskaras/ancestors6.html. I quote from the above web page:

Samskaras Hindu Funeral Rites and Ancestor Worship [1] Antyesti, Sraddha and Tarpana 6. Another Form of Sraddha


I will conclude this article by mentioning a final variation to the sraddha process, which is based on the ancient Pancaratra[1] tradition whose influence can be readily seen in the Mahabharata some of the Puranas.


A follower of Visnu is enjoined to perform the sraddha rites with the remnants of food first offered to Visnu. The Padma-purana enjoins that deities other than Visnu and the fathers may be propitiated with food that has been first offered to Visnu. In that same text Narada says, "Following the ordinances of the Sattvata School, the devotees first worshiped Visnu, the God of gods, and with the remnants of such food worshiped the fathers." In the Brahmanda-purana it is enjoined that the father's remain gratified for thousands of kalpas with rice cakes mixed with sacred blossoms of tulasi, prepared with the remnants of food offered with devotion to Visnu. In the Skanda-purana, Siva says, "Food should first be offered to Visnu and then the very same food should be distributed to the minor deities and the fathers." In the Purusottama-khanda of that same text, it is stated, "For avoiding defilement, the remnants of food offered to Visnu should be mixed with the rice cakes to be offered to the fathers. Food is rendered pure when sprinkled with the waters of the tulasi and when mixed with the food offered to Visnu." In the course of a conversation between Brahma and Narada it has been made clear that the worship of Visnu alone is capable of releasing the fathers from the suffering of hell." It is even stated that the performance of the sraddha rite is useless in the age of Kali without first worshipping Visnu.


This series of quotations from various Puranas reflects the Pancaratrika idea that through a person's sole reliance on Visnu all things that a human being would otherwise have to do alone could be accomplished through the grace of God. The successful outcome of the sraddha process was therefore, not dependant on the power of the ritual, the expertise of the priest, precise timing, and availability of the articles, etc. but upon God alone. This approach involved the 'handing over' of the fate of the soul to God.


According to this approach, food or water that is offered to the pitrs is first offered to Visnu and thereby transformed into visnu-prasada. The word prasada means "mercy" or "grace." Thus visnu-prasada is God's grace. This prasada of Visnu is then offered to the pitrs, who now receive God's grace instead of mere food or water. In this way, the grace of God has the power to elevate and sustain the pitrs in a manner that no human power can match. In the case of a homa or havan, a ritual performed with fire, the fire is used as the "delivery system" by which Visnu is first offered food. This food offering, which is now God's grace, is then offered to the pitrs through the fire. It is thus Agnideva, the fire God, who acts as the link between this world and the world of the pitrs.


Psychologically this approach to the sraddha process is very satisfying to grieving family members. The invocation of God's grace to reach beyond human endeavor is indeed powerful. Copyright © Sanskrit Religions Institute 2003. All rights reserved.


Walker, Benjamin. Hindu World, An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism. In two volumes. New Delhi: Indus, 1968.


Shastri, Dakshina Ranjan. Origin and Development of the Rituals of Ancestor Worship in India. Bookland Private: Calcutta, 1963.


Saraswati, Swami Dayanand, translation by Vaidyanath Shastri. The Sanskar Vidhi. Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha: New Delhi, 1985.


[1] The Pancaratra Agamas claim to be based on the Sukla-yajur-veda (which is no longer extant) and purports to be of Vedic origin. The Pancaratra Agamas are extremely voluminous. The number of texts is in the hundreds, but the most ancient and authoritative Pancaratra texts are the Sattvata, Pauskara and Jayakhya Samhitas.



In India, pitri-paksha (ancestor-worship-fortnight) is observed during the dark-half of lunar month AsvAyuja (asvin). This usually comes in October. The first nine days of the white-fortnight of this lunar month aSvin are used for worshipping nine Goddesses, (mAte in lATvia). That means after mAte worship you will have pitara worship.

The month kArtika which follows the dark-fortnight, is also dedicated to ancestors (pitris also called pitaras similar to father and paternal in English.). Oil lamps are lit at doorsteps of houses, intended to show the way to pitaras in darkness. kArtika month (usually October-November) is important both from the point of ancestor worship and viShn worship. You can observe the importance of vishN in the above quote.

15 dark days in Asvin + 30 days of kArtik will give 45 days, which is equal to a month in lATvian calendar.

The month following kArtika, called 'mArgaSira' (from Lamda Orion) is also important for vishN worship. viShn (krishNa) in bhagavadgita chose to say that he was the month mArgaSirsha among the 12 months.
10/35 mAsAnAm mArgaSirshoo aham rutuunaam kusumAkara.


One word of caution: Feeding ancestors need not be viewed as something despicable or barbarically superstitious. Whether it is God worship (dEva yagnam), Ancestor worship (pitru yagnam), Guest worship (atidhi pUja), rishi yagnam (worship of sages), suvAsini pUja (worship of housewives), all these are done on a one-to-one basis.

What a European/American host does when a guest rings the bell of his apartment?

Answer: Open door.
Invite with some sweet words. (AavAhayAmi).
Inquire whether everybody is happy on the other side (guest's family, friends).
Give some water to wash feet. (arghyam, pAdyam).
Offer a towel. (vastram).
Offer water to drink.(udakam).
Offer some tiffin (madhuparkam).
Offer some Coffee. (pAnIyam).
After sometime:
Invite them to have a bath. (snAnam)
Offer Towel again.
Offer some clothes if necessary.(vastram).
Offer some cosmetics, incenses.(pushpam, dhupam, nIrAjanam).
Offer some food.(naivEdyam).
Offer some water intermittantly.(madhya madhya udaka pAnE).
Offer some betel leaves and nuts.(tAmbUlam).
So on so forth.
Finally take him to the gate of the apartment Complex or to the end of the street, to bid farewell; if necessary, helping to hire a car; Or drop in host's own car.


The Hindu chants of worship contain nothing but the above formalities, uttered using the Sanskrit language. They appear bizarre, because most Hindus do not learn Sanskrit. These are called ShODaSOpacArams or 16 steps of duties of a host, receiving his guest.

In fact, there was a Hindu custom prevalent upto the end of 19th Century. A householder should not dine his lunch alone without a guest also dining beside him. This guest should not be somebody who is already known to him. That means the householder has to search for strangers everyday to dine with him, with all the ShODaSOpacArams listed above. This practice was very convenient in those days, when there were no hotels where people could buy food. People had to walk long distance, when visiting other places for reaching relatives, or on business or on pilgrimage. So if a person starts walking at dawn, walks around 15-20km. by midday, to reach a village, he would be welcome with open hands for dining. No need to search for hotels.


The best example for guest worship can be seen in the book manucaritra-svArOcisha manusambhavam. telugu language. poet allasAni peddana. period of writing: Early 16th Century CE. In the story, the protagonist pravara welcomed and hosted a pilgrim. Their conversation is very captivating, delightful, enchanting, fulfilling and soothing to readers' minds.

Here is a link to the part of the manucaritra story, which depicts guest worship.
click to see english translation of guest worship story, which is very interesting.


Thus atithii/s (guests), by definition, were those who visit without tithi (date) i.e. without prior information. Ancestors are also like atithis i.e. guests, who deserve worship.


Hence ancestor worship need not be shunned down upon, unless it is taken to extremities of whims and fancies.


These are our bad days of "kali". We must have wads of currencies in our wallet, and carry some ATM cards, Credit Cards, if we have to survive on journeys.


Of course, every system has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Monday, July 22, 2013

#023 NON-BALTIC WORDS IN SANSKRIT

Shri lATVian has commented as under:
Lakshmi - Laime; similar word is Veiksme [Veikhsme](luckiness) and Līksme (Liikhsme)( a mirth). I wrote about vowel changes in baltic languages and dialects, so i think Lakshmi could be Līksme (Lakshmi devata - Līksmes dieviete). I tend to think sanskrit is not just baltic language, it should be baltic inspired language for managing empire with hundreds of languages or for religic cases like latin language across world in catholic church. Analizing words and forms, many of them seems alien for baltic, it is hard to understand lot of them, but maybe i think wrong - differencies between latvian and lithuanian shows words can be different source as both languages are agglutinative languages, so it is possible sanskrit have only baltic source words whose baltics don`t know and don`t understand. About grammar - sanskrit have simple grammar, baltics complicated. Baltics agglutinative creating of words, sanskrit seems to be agglutinative too, but more is tend to compound words in a phrase.

POSSIBILITIES
If Celtics invaded lATVia in 5000 years back (3000 years BCE), and they migrated to North India, during these 5000, the Sanskrit might have imported several native Indian words. Apart from drAViDs of the Indus Valley Civilisation (major Indian population in those days), we have regional populations (I shall not like to call them tribes, as it will be nothing but condescension) such as gONDs, santALs, bhils, gutti kOYAs et al. Just as ancestral BAlTic languages got mixed up with Celtic, Norman, probably some South European-Roman-Catholic words, Sanskrit might have added words like prAkritam, paiSAci, pALi.

Hence, let us accept that our work will not progress.

There are many high-income Indians both in India and in the Western world, who believe that India taught everything to the world, when the world was not in a position to wear even a kaupIna (loin cloth). They believe that Aryans spread to all parts of the world and hence Sanskrit words are found in North Indian languages. You might have read the comment made by Shri Paddy at this blog. European historians and many Indian historians contradicted it.

India's principal opposition party BJP (bhAratIya janatA Party) and its allies also seem to entertain the view of Aryan superiority and their origin in India.

However, from historians' and linquists' points of view, we need not entertain any bias or partiality to any particular race or language.

Apart from similarities of Sanskrit and bAlkan languages, and GODS/GODDESSES (denigrated by Christian rulers as pagans and probably HEATHENS) , we have to dig out the historical background, which the Roman and Celtic rulers tried to erase.

Similarities of mythological stories, kings and their dynasties, commonness of invasions/migrations which later got assimilated with the native cultures, all these things we have to take into account.

Example of common invader/migrations: You have written that HUNNs invaded BAltics during the 4th Century AD. You will be surprised to find that the same HUNNs invaded India during 4th/5th Century AD and destroyed the Gupta empire and culture. I have already highlighted that the fondness of Guptas towards Sanskrit language and Hindu Gods like Visn, rAma.

You have mentioned in one of your comments, about invasions by Sakas. India was invaded by Sakas between first Century AD and 4th Centuries, before HUNNs.

Could Sakas have some relationship with sakulpas?

Both Sakas and hUNNs finally got integrated with the Indian Society and their vocabulary too got merged with SAnskrit and other Indian languages.

In one of the links provided by you, I came across a word "skandhaja" (which Google could not translate into English). This seems to be a God's name or a king's name.

This "skandhaja" is very important in Hindu culture. He has several names such as kArtikEya, shaNmukha, kumAra, shaDAnana, subrahmaNya, murugan, sharavaNabhava (one who is born from darbha grass- a type of grass ). He is regarded as the supreme commander of dEvAs (Gods).

This skandhaja is adorned with three horizontal marks across, on his face above eyebrows. He is regarded as son of Lord Shiva. ViShn worshippers wear one or three vertical marks. We are able to trace viShN and laime mAte in the LATvian Gods and Goddesses, while we could not so far trace anything about Shiva/rudra/Shankara (different names of same God of kEdArnath, North India).

vAlmiki rAmAyan which is more a viSHn oriented epic, has a few references to Lord kArtikEya (skandha).

I have already given in one of my comments, about the link of Shiva worship-phallus worship to the Crete -Greece and you have made a few observations about Crete-Greece-Baltic links.

skandha or skandhaja mentioned above needs more digging in the LATVian books, links given by you. I hope you may be able to do more on this skandhaja, as you are more familiar the laTvian/BAltic culture and language. I am trying with google translations. I hope I shall also be able to come up with something worthwhile.

Thursday, July 04, 2013

#022 Replies to Comments and Explanations



To Shri Latvin: Sanskrit is now mainly used in India for worship in temples, and formal worship in homes. Besides it is used in Hindu auspicious functions like marriages, and inauspicious functions like funerals and vardhantis (annual ceremony of death of elders). Sanskrit is mother tongue to very few people. But Sanskrit is taught in thousands of Colleges in India.

Most Indian languages have imported Sanskrit words upto about 50% of vocabulary (exception: Urdu which is linked to Arabic, Persian and Turkish). My mother tongue Telugu, spoken in Andhra Pradesh (South Central India consisting of Rivers Krishna, Godavari and Pinakini) has about 40% Sanskrit imported words. MalayAlam language spoken in kEraLa (deep South India), I understand, has 50% Sanskrit words. Thus, the Latvin and Lithuanian words given by you bear close similarity to our mother tongues. Example: sunuka is dog for you. Sunakam is dog in Telugu. Prateja is skill for you. Pragna is skill in Telugu. Pratigna is oath. Prasisana is asking for you. Prasna is asking/question in Telugu. bEda is sadness for you. bAdha is sadness in Telugu.

About similarity of languages, I am fully in harmony with you, now after studying about thousand words given by you.

All the credit should go to you.

TO ALL MY READERS:

There is a need to dig out some old mythological stories of Visn, lakme mate, 14 mAte (14 mothers) I found on one Latvian web site. Visn has 1000 names in Sanskrit. lakme mAte too has 1000 names. We have another Goddess named lalita. She too has 1000 names. For example bAla tripura sundari (young beautiful Lady of three cities). These are used in worshipping Lord Visn, Lakme and lalita. Many superior Gods have thousand names each. Probably some of these names, readers may find in pre-Christian mythological stories. VishNu's role in Hindu mythology is protector, by killing demons. Sun God is VishNu's brother (they are among 12 Adityas sons of mother Aditi). We have another meaning for Mihira i.e. Sun God. Lord Siva (Sankara) is also known as rudra (One who is red). He is among 11 rudras. God parjanya (God of clouds) is understood as God Indra. In the days of rigvEda he was the supreme God. Later he was reduced to the role of Chief of Demy God, in charge of one heaven. varuNa is for water and seas. He is Head of the Western direction. Austra (east) may probably be akin to Goddess of Dawn called ushas. Aushadha meaning medicine, Oshadhi medicinal plant may also be aushat.

For Hindus, North direction is very sacred. Sun's Northern motion (Northern solstice), though it starts on Dec. 22 according to astronomy, according to Hinduism it starts on Jan. 14 (the day on which Sun enters the constellation Capricorn - makara (crocodile). People prefer to die when the Sun is in Northern Motion. Visn temples open their Northern Gates on auspicious days during the Northern Run of Sun (approx. upto June 21).

About comment : that BrahmaNas moved away from Latvia after Celtics invaded Latvia.

This Brahma has two meanings in Sanskrit. Brahmam is supreme spirit, formless and attributeless. Another Brahma is Creator. He is visN's Son.

According my personal belief (provisional-temporary view), all the three top Aryan Castes Brahmanas, Kshatriyas (warriors) and Vysyas (Merchants and cultivators) might have come from Latvia-Lithuania.

At some stage in ancient Indian History, say 5000 years ago, there was a conflict between BrAhmaNas and kshatriyas (warriors). Kshatriyas seem to have had a upper hand. Brahma (Creator) seems to have lost his temples. Siva did not lose his temples, but lost his full-body-worship, replaced by phallus. Siva purANa (ancient story of Shiva) has an interesting story for the originating cause of phallus worship. Phallus worship need not be regarded as something to be totally looked down upon as extremely obnoxious.

After all 59% of Americans, according to research-surveys, indulge in oral sex. Phallus worship cannot be worse than oral sex, because in oral sex men and women actually insert their mouths. In phallus worship only stone images are worshipped. Linga or Lingam is one Sanskrit word for phallus. Lingam means symbol or icon. Stone Symbols seem to be better than real penises which ooze urine.

Today, the American President himself is selling/teaching the idea of tolerating gay sex (homosex) to Africans, apart from encouraging legislation in USA. Many American States and European countries are legalising homosex. If one penis can attack another penis or if one penis can go into anus of some other person, and if society can encourage it, why a society cannot consider stone-phallus worship as less objectionable? I am not supporting phallus worship here, but I wish to say that it can be granted equal tolerance on par with oral sex or homosex. I am writing this as an atheist and Marxist, personally.

There is no definition of Good Gods and Bad Gods. The same God (if he/she exists) creates Saints and Serial-murderers. The same God creates billionaires and beggars. Hence there is no question of some worship being superior and some other worship being inferior. Priests and Preachers in Hinduism, unable to explain this paradox of the same God being both benefactor and tormentor, attributed every thing to viShN mAya (the discombobulating magic of Lord viShN). Or some times, attributed it to virtues and sins of past birth.

I hope these ideas will explain the importance of North for Hindus (probably because their ancestors have come from North). I hope that readers will get some insight into Ancient Hindu Gods and probably Ancient Latvian Gods (whom Christian kings and priests branded as pagan Gods and removed them from history). Story of Shiva purANa for phallus worship. In the next post.

Monday, May 20, 2013

#021 U



ushas(Sanskrit)= morning. : ushahin(Middle Persian-Pehlavi-Iran)= between midnight and dawn.

#009 I



indra(Sanskrit) = Head of demi-Gods. : indar(Middle Persian-Pehlavi-irAn)= demon. In ancient Iran, everything is reverse. Ahuras (asuras) were good persons. surAs or dEvas were bad persons. In India, dEvas are virtuous. asurAs or demons.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

V

VAJI, VAAJI, VAZI, VAAZI: horse. Old Prussian (German): WAZI = a sledge drawn by a horse.

W

WAJI , VAJI, waaji, vaaji (Sanskrit) : horse. Old Prussian: WAZI= a sledge driven by a horse.

Thursday, December 17, 2009

#020 T


tamasa, tAmasa (Sanskrit)= darkness. : tumsa, tamsa (Latvian, Lithuanian). .= darkness. Mr./Ms. Latvian, whose comment appears below in the Comments Section, contributed this word. Thanks. tapas, tapis (Sudovian) : tapas (Sanskrit), warm (English).
ter (Sudovian) : tar (Sanskrit); than (English).

TRISKADEKAIPHOBIA (Engl.) : fear of the number 13. triska (sanskrit) = three. deka, deca, dasa (sanskrit) = ten. trayOdasa = 13. trika (Sanskrit) = three.

#005 E

entrai (Sudovian) : antar (Sanskrit); within (English).

#002 B


bhaga(Sanskrit)= God. : baga(Middle Persian-pahlavi-Iran)= God. baile (Sudovian) : bhaya (Sanskrit); fear (English).

bharati - Sanskrit : bear: carries (English). baere: carry (Norwagian).bara: carry (Swedish).

bhasmam(Sanskrit)= ash, particularly sacred ash. : bhasam(Middle Persian-pehlavi-Iran)= sacred ash from a fire temple of Zoroashtrians.
bough (English) : baahu (Sanskrit); branch, shoulder (English).

#012 L

laba (Sudovian) : labha (pr. laabha, Sanskrit); benefit, profit (English). LABAS (Old Prussian or German) = wealth..

#011 K

ka (Sudovian) : ka (Sanskrit); what (English).
kadan (Sudovian) : katham (Sanskrit); when (English).
kaimas (Sudovian) : gramas (Sanskrit), village (English).

karta(Sanskrit) = doer. SrishThi-karta = creator. : kurti(Lithuanian)= create.

krit, krita(Sanskrit) = do, create. : kurti(Lithuanian)= create.

#010 J

jaunas (Sudovian) : yauvana, javvana (Sanskrit); youth, juvenile (English).
Note: ya = ja - interchanges are common in Indo European languages.

#007 G

gimisenis (Sudovian) : janmas (Sanskrit); born (English).

#019 S

saka (Sudovian) : saka (pr. s`aakha- Sanskrit); branch (English)
SILA, SAILA (Sanskrit) : stone, mountain. Old Prussian: SILA, SYLO = wasteland.

savitr, savitru(Sanskrit)=light, God/Goddess of light. : Swayxtix(Sudovian). Goddess of Light.(source wikipedia.org).

snAn, snAnam(Sanskrit)= bath. :

#018 R

rikausna (Sudovian) : rakshana (Sanskrit); rule, protect (English).

#016 P

prasamsa (Sanskrit); praise (English).: pagirsna (Sudovian) .

parjanya (Sanskrit)=thunder God Indra. : purginepaz (Lithuanian mythology)= thunder God.. See this wikipedia link. wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_mythology.

#013 M



makha, makham(Sanskrit) = maga(Middle Persian-pehlAvi-Iran)=a sacrificial pit.

mantra, manthra(Sanskrit)= A holy chant. holy word. : manthra(Middle Persian-pehlAvi-Iran)= holy words, with poetic and spiritual properties. mirtis (Sudovian) : mrita, mriti, mritaha (Sanskrit); death (English).
mistra (Sudovian): misra (Sanskrit); mix (English).
mote (Sudovian) : maata, mata (Sanskrit); mother (English).
Sanskrit-Madhu = honey. SudovianMedus.
Sanskrit: Muka = dumb. : Norwegian: mua = dumb.

Sunday, October 25, 2009

#001 A

Abai (Sudovian) = both. Ubhau (Sanskrit).
Aham (Sanskrit): I; (Latgalian:asmu).

AkAs, AkAsh(Sanskrit) = sky. : Occopirmus, Ockopirmus(Sudovian)=Chief God of Sky.
Akshi (Sanskrit) (n) = eye (Old Prussian: Akksi); Sudovian:Akis.

Ap
Apaha (N) = Water. (Romanian: Apa.)

As
Asmaakam: We; (Latgalian:asmu); Us (English).
Asht`a: eight (Latgalian:okto); Eight (English).

As`ru (Sanskrit) = Tears (Latvian: Asarot, Lithuanian: Asaroti.)


AS`


Ashirwad(Sanskrit)= benediction, blessings. : Ashirwad(Middle Persian-pehlavi-Iran)= benediction, blessings.

As`vini (n) = As`vieniai = horses pulling the chariot of the Sun God. (Lithuanian).

aSvini dEvatahaSanskrit. =The Asvin Gods. These twins are treated as the pioneers of the science of healing.: Ašvieniai Lithuanian: the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun.

atharvaN, atharv, athvarya(Sanskrit)= a supervisor of vEdic sacrifices. : athravan, athrawan, athornan(Middle Persian-PehlAvi, from Iran)=a person of priest class.

aushadh((Sanskrit)=medicine. : Auschauts(Sudovian). = God of Sick.

#007 G

Gaidin (Sudovian) = wheat. gehu (Hindi); Godhuma (Sanskrit); Many North Indian languages.

Geitka (Old Prussian) = Godhuma (Sanskrit); Geitin (Dutch).
Usage: Usage: Old Prussian proverb: Deues does dantes, Deues does geitka:
God gives teeth, God gives bread.

Gramata (Latvian) = book. Gramdha (Sanskrit).

GRIHINI, GRUHINI (Sanskrit) : Houswife. GENA GENIKA (Old Prussian: woman).
GANIKA (Sanskrit): Woman Prostitute. GENIKA (Old Prussian - in Germany): woman.

#004 D

kKSanskrit:Dadur, Dadruka : Englishtetter. NorwegianTetter.
Dantes = teeth.
Deues (Old Prussian) = Deva (Sanskrit); God (English).

Usage: Old Prussian proverb: Deues does dantes, Deues does geitka:
God gives teeth, God gives bread.



dEv(Sanskrit)= God. : dew, dev, daeva, daiva(Middle Persian-Pehlavi-Iran)= demon. Note: In Persia(Iran), devas were demons and bad persons. ahuras (asurAs) were good persons. It is reverse in India. asurAs are bad and dEvAs are virtuous. Das`a: ten, deca, deci (Latg:dekm);
dumas (Sudovian) : dhuuma (Sanskrit); smoke (English).
Dina: day (Latgalian: dina);
Diva =day;
Duhita = daughter. (Lithuanian: dukters)
dve, dvi: two (Latgalian:duwo);

Friday, October 31, 2008

#008 H

H

HO
Hota (hoota) : hoast (English); hostija (Latvian).

HR
Hrit : heart; Icelandic: hjarta; Norwagian: hjerte; Swedish: hjart; German: herz; Latvian:sirds; Lithuanian:sirdis.

Wednesday, July 09, 2008

#014 N

NA
nabas (Sudovian) : nabhi (pr. naabha, naabhi) (Sanskrit);
NAK
Naktam (n) : 1. a night. (Latvian: Nakts; German: Nacht; Slovenian: Noc; Swedish: Nat.Sudovian:Naktin.

nAma karaNa(Sanskrit)=naming ceremony. : nAma karaNa(Middle Persian-pehlAvi-Iran)= naming ceremony for a baby, performed after 10-12 days of birth.
navais, navas (Sudovian) : nava (Sanskrit); new (English).
navinas (Sudovian) : nava (Sanskrit); new (English).
nevinadesimt (Sudovian) : navadasa (Sanskrit); nineteen (English).
nevindesimt (Sudovian) : nava dasa (Sanskrit); ninety (English).
nevinei/nevinis (Sudovian) : nava (Sanskrit); nine (English).
nevintas (Sudovian) : navama (Sanskrit); ninth (English)

Thursday, January 25, 2007

OLD SAXON ENGLISH, LATVIAN, LITHUANIAN, OLD PRUSSIAN SWEDISH AND SANSKRIT LANGUAGES HAVE A COMMON PAST


Sanskrit has Indo European origin. English, German, Latvian (Latgalian), Old Prussian too have an Indo European origin. Hence, they have several words in common. Over Centuries, pronunciation and spellings changed. When foreign words entered into English, some alien words took precedence over Indo European words because they had royal patronage.


The knowledge of common vocabulary between Sanskrit and English can help us to understand Sanskrit literature better. Here is a list of such words. The list is not exhaustive. I shall add more, as soon as I am able to collect them. For some of the words, there may be only a remote relationship, still linking them will help to remember the meanings.

Migrations seem to have taken place from lATvia/Lithuania to India and vice versa. It may be like alternative current, which flows in a circuit.


Comments for this particular post, has thousands of Latvian words contributed by Shri lATvian. My immense thanks to him. Please study those words also.

.

A


Aham: I; (Latgalian:asmu).
Akshi (n) = eye (Old Prussian: Akksi).

Ap


Apaha (N) = Water. (Romanian: Apa.)
AsmAkam: We; (Latgalian:asmu);

As


Asht`a: eight (Latgalian:okto);
As`ru (N) = Tears (Latvian: Asarot, Lithuanian: Asaroti.)

AS


As`vini (n) = As`vieniai = horses pulling the chariot of the Sun God. (Lithuanian)

B


Bandham (n) = 1. bond 2. bundle (Danish: bundet; Dutch: bundel; Norwegian: bunt; Swedish: bunt;

Note: Normally, Latvian and Lithuanian are nearer to Sanskrit. Here are the exceptions: Lat: sainis, rysulys.

BhrAta = brother;

C

Catvari (pronunciation:chatvari without aspirant):four (Latgalian:quetwores);

D


DaSa: ten, deca, deci (Latg:dekm);
Dina: day (Latgalian: dina);
Diva=day;
Duhita = daughter. (Lithuanian: dukters)
dve, dvi: two (Latgalian:duwo);

E



F



G


Gramdha, grandha = book. Latvian :Gramata

I


idam:it;
itaram: other;
iti: this (Latgalian: ite;)

Ja


Jalam (N) = Water. (Czech: Zalevat; Slovenian: Zaliti.

janma:gen, genetic;(Lithuanian:jimimas);
janma dina: birth day (Lithuanian: jimimo diena);

JAV


Javvani (n, fem.)= damsel (Latvian: Jaunava )


JI



jiva, jIvanti:live (Lithuanian:gyventi);
bhu, bhava, bhavati: exist(s) (Lithuanian: buti, buvoti);

K


Kah, Kas: what (Latgalian: Kas);
Karta: Creator, Doer. There is a Latvian Pagan God called "Karta", whose functions
are similar to Hindu God Karta (or Srusht`i Karta i.e. Brahma).
Katika:cart;

Ke

Kendram: Centre. (Swedish: Karna; Dutch:kern; Danish: kerne.

L


Lakshmi: Goddess of Wealth. (Latin Goddess Laime has attributes similar to Lakshmi. Hindus worship Lakshmi with eight attributes (adjective called Asht`a Lakshmi) such as money, children, corn, education etc. Latvin Laime has four attributes, as I understand.

M



Mata:mother, mater, maternal; (Latvian equivalent "mate". Laime mate = Lakshmi Mata. The word Mata is used for Goddesses also, because they are like mothers).

mayA:my;

mE:me;

mrut, mrit, mriti:mortal;(Lithuanian:mriti);

N


Na=no; (Latgalian: na)

nava:nine (as in November, nineth month originally;)(Latgalian:newn);

NAsa:nose;nasal;(German: nase)

O



P


Pa


pada:ped;
pakshi (n) : bird (Latvian: puce)
panca (pancha):five (Latgalian: penkwe).
PatAl`a (n) = underworld (Lithuanian: Patalu, God of underworld).
Payaha (N) = 1. Water. 2. Milk. (Lithuanian: pienas, Latvian: Piens in the
meaning of milk.)

Pi


pita:pater, paternal, father;

Pl


plava:flow (Latvian: plust;

Pr


Pralapam (n)= babble (Latvian: plapat Lithuanian: plepati)

PrIt:: to like, be happy, prefer. (Lithuanian: pritati)

Q





R





S


Sa


s`akha (s`Akha): branch (Lithuanian:s`aka, verb: s`akotas)
s`aka (s`Aka): vegetable (Lithuanian:s`aka)
Sammata: Agree. (Icelandic: sammala, Swedish: stamma; Lithuanian: pritati)
s`atam:cent, centime;

sapta, saptam:septa; (Latgalian:septm);

SH


Sharkara (n) : Sugar; (Latvian: cukur; Lithuanian: cukrus; Finnish: sokeri; Hungarian: cukor; Norwegian:


shasht`a: sexta;(Latgalian:sveks, Latvian: Sashi)

ST


Sthita: Sit. (Icelandic: sitja; Norwegian: sitta, Swedish: sitta)

ST


Sukker; Danish: Sukker; Czech: cukr; Swedish: socker.).


Su


Added with the help of Shri Latvian: Sunaka, Sunakam. (Sanskrit) = dog. : suņuks, suņuka (Latvian) = a puppy, dog. SunI

(Sanskrit). = female dog. bitch. : suns, sunis (Latvian). = dog, suņi dogs. Supam or Supa (pr: Suupa)(n) = Soup, broth, boiled lentils particularly Redgram or Greengram splits. (Latvian: zupa; Lithuvanian: sriuba)

T


tamasa (Sanskrit) =darkness. : tumsa, tamsa. (Latvian).=darkness.
This word is the contribution of Mr/Ms. Latvian, whose comment appears below. tAra:star;
tat:that;
tatra:there;
tava:your (Lithuanian: tava);
tee: they;(Latgalian: tevi)

trini, traya: three;tri; (Latgalian: treyes);



U


Udakam (U is pronounced as in You) = water. (Lithuanian: Vanduo; Latvian Odens; Czech: Voda.)

V


Vayu (N) (pronunc: VAyu) = Wind God. (Vejas - Lithuanian).


W




X





Y


yavvana:youth (Lithuanian: jaunimas)

yooga:yoke;



Z




LEGAL DISCLAIMER: This blog is written as a search for truth. No illwill or hurt is intended against anybody. No liability/responsibility can be accepted for errors.

Bartias among Prussian Tribes

Bartias among Prussian Tribes
Prussian Tribes image from wikipedia.org

Wikipedia map of Latvian-Lithuanian-group countries

Wikipedia map of Latvian-Lithuanian-group countries
We need to go deeper into ancient history

SEARCHING FOR FACTS

BRIEF INTRODUCTION
Sanskrit has Indo European origin. English, German, Latvian (Latgalian), Old Prussian too have an Indo European origin. Hence, they have several words in common. Over Centuries, pronunciation and spellings changed. When foreign words entered into English, some alien words took precedence over Indo European words because they had royal patronage.The knowledge of common vocabulary between Sanskrit and English can help us to understand Sanskrit literature better. Here is a list of such words. The list is not exhaustive. I shall add more, as soon as I am able to collect them. For some of the words, there may be only a remote relationship, still linking them will help to remember the meanings.I DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE VIEW THAT ARYANS INVADED INDIA OR INDIANS INVADED NORTH EAST EUROPE. TIME IS THE BEST HEALER AND PROVER OF TRUTH.

PRONUNCIATION TABLE
aa - long A as in ant, bat, cat. c - as in chalk, chat (without aspirate). The sound of k has been avoided. (In Latgalian(Latvian) the spelling 'k' is found for the Sanskrit 'c'.ch - with aspirate stress.d` - Retroflex 'd' as in dog, donkey, door.ee - long e, as in bake, care, dare, fare.ii - long i, as in beat, cheat, deal, eel, feel, heal. l` - heavy l.n` - heavy n.oo - Long o, as in goat, coat, note.s` - as in sack, salary, sand.t` - retroflex t, as in tap, ten, tin, ton, tune.uu - long u as in school, pool, tool.In Sanskrit 'y' and 'j' are often interchanged.Every effort has been made to maintain the phonetic spelling.